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August 22 2018

01:40

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August 21 2018

19:34

Paris – Subodh Gupta: “Adda / Rendez-vous” at Monnaie De Paris Through August 26th, 2018

Subodh Gupta, Adda/Rendez-vous (Installation View), via Art Observed On view through the end of the summer at the Monnaie de Paris, Indian artist Subodh Gupta has orchestrated a series of large scale installations and sculptures spread throughout the halls of the famed Parisian institution, a body of work that runs throughout the artist’s focused and […]
18:09

Quando

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<w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException 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Quando  
a feliz vitória
sobre o fracasso do amor,
a raiz salubre de um poema,
um êxtase, uma tarde,
uma palavra?

  
Quando dos rios
toda a água?











(imagem: pesquisa s/ ind.autoria)

16:35

France Developing “Culture Pass” App

France is developing a new “culture pass” app, which will aim to improve access to arts and culture for young people across the country.  “No cultural or artistic offering will be excluded,” says France’s culture minister, Françoise Nyssen. Every organization active in the cultural arena will be welcome on the pass – public or private, physical […]
13:09

Zona Maco Satellite Fairs Return After 2017 Earthquake

Zona Maco’s sister fairs, Zona Maco Salón and Zona Maco Foto will return this month  after cancellations last September over the earthquake that ripped through Mexico City. The fairs open tomorrow, August 22nd. Read more at Art Newspaper  
13:00

Code Your First API With Node.js and Express: Understanding REST APIs

Understanding REST and RESTful APIs

If you've spent any amount of time with modern web development, you will have come across terms like REST and API. If you've heard of these terms or work with APIs but don't have a complete understanding of how they work or how to build your own API, this series is for you.

In this tutorial series, we will start with an overview of REST principles and concepts. Then we will go on to create our own full-fledged API that runs on a Node.js Express server and connects to a MySQL database. After finishing this series, you should feel confident building your own API or delving into the documentation of an existing API.

Prerequisites

In order to get the most out of this tutorial, you should already have some basic command line knowledge, know the fundamentals of JavaScript, and have Node.js installed globally.

What Are REST and RESTful APIs?

Representational State Transfer, or REST, describes an architectural style for web services. REST consists of a set of standards or constraints for sharing data between different systems, and systems that implement REST are known as RESTful. REST is an abstract concept, not a language, framework, or type of software.

A loose analogy for REST would be keeping a collection of vinyl vs. using a streaming music service. With the physical vinyl collection, each record must be duplicated in its entirety to share and distribute copies. With a streaming service, however, the same music can be shared in perpetuity via a reference to some data such as a song title. In this case, the streaming music is a RESTful service, and the vinyl collection is a non-RESTful service.

An API is an Application Programming Interface, which is an interface that allows software programs to communicate with each other. A RESTful API is simply an API that adheres to the principles and constraints of REST. In a Web API, a server receives a request through a URL endpoint and sends a response in return, which is often data in a format such as JSON.

REST Principles

Six guiding constraints define the REST architecture, outlined below.

  1. Uniform Interface: The interface of components must be the same. This means using the URI standard to identify resources—in other words, paths that could be entered into the browser's location bar.
  2. Client-Server: There is a separation of concerns between the server, which stores and manipulates data, and the client, which requests and displays the response.
  3. Stateless Interactions: All information about each request is contained in each individual request and does not depend on session state.
  4. Cacheable: The client and server can cache resources.
  5. Layered System: The client can be connected to the end server, or an intermediate layer such as a load-balancer.
  6. Code on Demand (Optional): A client can download code, which reduces visibility from the outside.

Request and Response

You will already be familiar with the fact that all websites have URLs that begin with http (or https for the secure version). HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the method of communication between clients and servers on the internet.

We see it most obviously in the URL bar of our browsers, but HTTP can be used for more than just requesting websites from servers. When you go to a URL on the web, you are actually doing a GET request on that specific resource, and the website you see is the body of the response. We will go over GET and other types of requests shortly.

HTTP works by opening a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) connection to a server port (80 for http, 443 for https) to make a request, and the listening server responds with a status and a body.

A request must consist of a URL, a method, header information, and a body.

Request Methods

There are four major HTTP methods, also referred to as HTTP verbs, that are commonly used to interact with web APIs. These methods define the action that will be performed with any given resource.

HTTP request methods loosely correspond to the paradigm of CRUD, which stands for Create, Update, Read, Delete. Although CRUD refers to functions used in database operations, we can apply those design principles to HTTP verbs in a RESTful API.

  • Read—GET: Retrieves a resource
  • Create—POST: Creates a new resource
  • Update—PUT: Updates an existing resource
  • Delete—DELETE: Deletes a resource

GET is a safe, read-only operation that will not alter the state of a server. Every time you hit a URL in your browser, such as https://www.google.com, you are sending a GET request to Google's servers.

POST is used to create a new resource. A familiar example of POST is signing up as a user on a website or app. After submitting the form, a POST request with the user data might be sent to the server, which will then write that information into a database.

PUT updates an existing resource, which might be used to edit the settings of an existing user. Unlike POST, PUT is idempotent, meaning the same call can be made multiple times without producing a different result. For example, if you sent the same POST request to create a new user in a database multiple times, it would create a new user with the same data for each request you made. However, using the same PUT request on the same user would continuously produce the same result.

DELETE, as the name suggests, will simply delete an existing resource.

Response Codes

Once a request goes through from the client to the server, the server will send back an HTTP response, which will include metadata about the response known as headers, as well as the body. The first and most important part of the response is the status code, which indicates if a request was successful, if there was an error, or if another action must be taken.

The most well-known response code you will be familiar with is 404, which means Not Found. 404 is part of the 4xx class of status codes, which indicate client errors. There are five classes of status codes that each contain a range of responses.

  • 1xx: Information
  • 2xx: Success
  • 3xx: Redirection
  • 4xx: Client Error
  • 5xx: Server Error

Other common responses you may be familiar with are 301 Moved Permanently, which is used to redirect websites to new URLs, and 500 Internal Server Error, which is an error that comes up frequently when something unexpected has happened on a server that makes it impossible to fulfil the intended request.

With regards to RESTful APIs and their corresponding HTTP verbs, all the responses should be in the 2xx range.

GET: 200 (OK)
POST: 201 (Created)
PUT: 200 (OK)
DELETE: 200 (OK), 202 (Accepted), or 204 (No Content)

200 OK is the response that indicates that a request is successful. It is used as a response when sending a GET or PUT request. POST will return a 201 Created to indicate that a new resource has been created, and DELETE has a few acceptable responses, which convey that either the request has been accepted (202), or there is no content to return because the resource no longer exists (204).

We can test the status code of a resource request using cURL, which is a command-line tool used for transferring data via URLs. Using curl, followed by the -i or --include flag, will send a GET request to a URL and display the headers and body. We can test this by opening the command-line program and testing cURL with Google.

Google's server will respond with the following.

As we can see, the curl request returns multiple headers and the entire HTML body of the response. Since the request went through successfully, the first part of the response is the 200 status code, along with the version of HTTP (this will either be HTTP/1.1 or HTTP/2).

Since this particular request is returning a website, the content-type (MIME type) being returned is text/html. In a RESTful API, you will likely see application/json to indicate the response is JSON.

Interestingly, we can see another type of response by inputting a slightly different URL. Do a curl on Google without the www.

Google redirects google.com to www.google.com, and uses a 301 response to indicate that the resource should be redirected.

REST API Endpoints

When an API is created on a server, the data it contains is accessible via endpoints. An endpoint is the URL of the request that can accept and process the GET, POST, PUT, or DELETE request.

An API URL will consist of the root, path, and optional query string.

  • Root e.g. https://api.example.com or https://api.example.com/v2: The root of the API, which may consist of the protocol, domain, and version.
  • Path e.g. /users/or /users/5: Unique location of the specific resource.
  • Query Parameters (optional) e.g. ?location=chicago&age=29: Optional key value pairs used for sorting, filtering, and pagination.
    We can put them all together to implement something such as the example below, which would return a list of all users and use a query parameter of limit to filter the responses to only include ten results.

https://api.example.com/users?limit=10

Generally, when people refer to an API as a RESTful API, they are referring to the naming conventions that go into building API URL endpoints. A few important conventions for a standard RESTful API are as follows:

  • Paths should be plural: For example, to get the user with an id of 5, we would use /users/5, not /user/5.
  • Endpoints should not display the file extension: Although an API will most likely be returning JSON, the URL should not end in .json.
  • Endpoints should use nouns, not verbs: Words like add and delete should not appear in a REST URL. In order to add a new user, you would simply send a POST request to /users, not something like /users/add. The API should be developed to handle multiple types of requests to the same URL.
  • Paths are case sensitive, and should be written in lowercase with hyphens as opposed to underscores.

All of these conventions are guidelines, as there are no strict REST standards to follow. However, using these guidelines will make your API consistent, familiar, and easy to read and understand.

Conclusion

In this article, we learned what REST and RESTful APIs are, how HTTP request methods and response codes work, the structure of an API URL, and common RESTful API conventions. In the next tutorial, we will learn how to put all this theory to use by setting up an Express server with Node.js and building our own API.

12:20

Onboarding Users Of Your Product: From Trial To Payment

Onboarding Users Of Your Product: From Trial To Payment

Onboarding Users Of Your Product: From Trial To Payment

Joe Leech
2018-08-21T14:20:21+02:002018-08-21T13:33:03+00:00

(This is a sponsored article.) In part one of this series, we looked at the Attraction phase of the customer lifecycle. This three-part series outlines the three phases of the product lifecycle, the future for UX, and the skills and approach you’ll need to design modern digital products.

  • Part 1: Attraction
    Going out there to get users to evaluate your product.
  • Part 2: Activation
    Signing up, onboarding users, asking for payment.
  • Part 3: Retention
    Encouraging users to come back and keep using and paying for your product.

Part Two: Activation

Plotting Out The Journey

When we talk about the Attraction phase, we’re talking about users discovering they have a need, discovering our product and visiting our website to see if our product meets their needs.

Within the lifecycle, we can split the larger three phases into smaller phases to help us plan our approach. In this case, we can use Philip Kotler's model (expanded to 6 steps by Bryony Thomas).

  • Awareness
    Realizing they have a need.
  • Interest
    Looking for something to help with that need.
  • Evaluation
    Looking at products that help with their need.
  • Trial
    Trying the product to see if it meets their need.
  • Adoption
    Choosing a product and using it for a while.
  • Loyalty
    Deciding to stay using the product or switch to a different one.
(Large preview)

We’re interested in the middle two parts that fall under the Acquisition phase.

In part one, we looked at the Evaluation phase. The user is now ready to sign up and get going with our product; we used the example of the money management app:

Homepage showing what our app does. Homepage showing what our app does. (Large preview)

Let’s take that app forward into the Acquisition phase of the lifecycle.

A. Trial/Onboarding

In the Trial phase, our user is going to sign up and see if it is the product for them.

The first challenge is to onboard the user. Onboarding is a real challenge as it can be complex, involving the user entering personal information as well as getting to grips with what the product does. There is a huge potential for users to drop out and leave.

Joshua Porter sums it up:

“Onboarding should not be a separate function/consideration/afterthought. It should be an initial (and primary) focus of design.”

Joshua Porter

So with that in mind, let’s take a look at onboarding.

Onboarding: Steady Progress Showing Value

For our money management app to work well we need for our user we need to accomplish three goals:

  1. Collect some personal data from our users.
    Who they are (including email, mobile phone number, etc.).
  2. Bank account access, to auto pull in transactions.
    As we’re in the EU, open banking regulations mean that all banks have to provide API access to transaction data.
  3. Familiarize them with the product.

That’s a big ask. Let’s think about how we can soften that. We need a simple hook to get started. We use a concept in psychology called ‘incremental commitment.’ We ask for a low commitment to the product and then when the user gets something in return was ask for more.

We ask the simple question, “How much do you think you spend on coffee a month?”

A simple question to get started A simple question to get started. (Large preview)

This can be done along with a hook to encourage people to compare their spend to others. There’s now a quick, easy win for the user.

We give something back, in this case comparing to the average. Then, we ask the next question.

incremental commitment in action. We ask a follow-up. Incremental commitment in action. We ask a follow-up. (Large preview)

It allows us to build trust, and for the user to get value from our product early.

Next, the big ask. We want bank account access. If we’d asked for this early, we’d see a larger dropout. But we now have built some trust, and our user is invested in the product.

(Large preview)

We then go for the big ask, granting bank access. As you can see, we are gently guiding our user through the onboarding, showing useful content at each step, trying to make it feel natural.

Asking for what could be challenging data like the mobile phone number is much easier if we offer context and say what benefit there is to the user. We could include the following on the sign-up page asking for the mobile number.

showing how giving us your mobile number adds value Showing how giving us your mobile number adds value. (Large preview)

We can then ask further questions, like email and for a password which will have less impact being asked later after we’ve shown value.

Interaction by interaction we’re asking a question, gathering some data and showing how the product works.

Things To Avoid During Onboarding

There are other pitfalls to designing a product onboarding flow.

  • Avoid the term registration, Registration is a meaningless concept, offer a reason for why you are asking for a pieces of information.
  • Similarly don’t ask too many questions, that might sound obvious, but the more you ask the more likely it is for users to drop out.
  • Answer these three simple questions when it comes to form fields:
    • Why are you asking the question?
    • What will you use the data for?
    • What value does the user get from giving us this data?
  • Avoid Captcha; it is a big cause of dropouts as captchas can harm conversion rates. Plus, they aren’t very friendly.
  • And, of course, if your users are located in the EU, you need to wrangle with GDPR.

B. Adoption

Onboarding doesn’t end when the user has signed up. This is a common mistake made by organizations big and small. “Great, our new registrations are up month on month. But our retention rate is really poor” is a common problem.

We need to support our users through the first few weeks and months of using our app. We need to give them a reason to come back to us.

In part one, we talked about SEO and Marketing skills and tools we can use to improve the experience.

We’ll be expanding our skill set to look at email, and how we can improve the email experience. To encourage product adoption, we need to understand and map the email user journey.

Any modern UX or product designer needs to know how to design multi-channel experiences, and after the product itself email is the most important.

Planning And Encouraging The Second Visit

For our money management app we have access to the users' bank transaction data. Rather than hoping they return to our app, we need to reach out and give them a reason to come back.

The pull: using email to get users to come back to our app

Let’s look at an email we can send them the next day. But before we do that, let’s look back at one question we asked users:

Notice that the ‘on coffee’ can be changed for other spending items. (Large preview)

The user could have changed ‘on coffee’ to be ‘at Restaurants’ or ‘at Amazon’ or another discretionary purchase option.

This is a tiny piece of personalization, and the best follow-up emails are personalized.

When designing an email the most important element is the subject line. A good subject line encourages the user to open it.

Let’s look at the most common email provider of them all, Gmail. Like we did in part one when designing Facebook ads, we’ll design in context, in this case the crowded inbox. Actually, the promotions inbox on Gmail.

There’s one email in there that stands out, yes it’s us! (Large preview)

By referencing the Frotos we identified in part one (Frotos: are the current bad state the user has and their wish for a new state. The From and the To, Froto) we should get a better open rate.

And yes, that is an emoji you see. Two in fact. 😜

This article is great at helping you decide if emojis are right for you: Emojis in email subject lines: smiley face, or smiley poop? as it has a lot of data.

TLDR, emojis can help boost open rates, and well...

What an emoji (in a subject line) does is one of two things:

  1. It makes a bad subject line worse;
  2. Or it makes a good subject line better.

We also need to think about other email design considerations:

Don’t forget to test your emails to make sure they look as designed — Litmus is great at this.

User Research And Email

It’s a good idea to user research your emails, you’ll be surprised at what useful ideas you’ll get back. Using the emails as prompt material will encourage users to answer the question “What could you offer me that would make me come back to the app?”

Drip, Drip, Drip That Email

That’s email one done, great job! But now we need to think about an ongoing programme of emails. It takes a while to form a habit, and that’s what we’re after. Getting our users to keep coming back. It can take from 18 to 254 days so we need to keep sending those emails.

These emails should offer value to our users. The key insights our product offers should be easy to deliver by email, SMS, or indeed any digital channel.

Our product promises a “Personalised Savings Plan” that’s what we need to deliver.

The best performing products work seamlessly across digital channels.

To encourage product adoption and to help our user save we could offer SMS messages.

(Large preview)

SMS is a neglected message format. Yes, it can be annoying if done badly, but it can equally be effective for our users.

Some SMS stats:

  • 98% of text messages are read within 2 minutes;
  • Open rates are around 99% for text messages compared to 20% for email;
  • Click through rates are around 30% for SMS and less than 5% for email.

That makes a compelling case for the effectiveness of SMS. Look at the success of startup Shine and learn more about how they use SMS.

We can encourage our user to save money by using SMS, sending an email once a day. A daily, personalized, money coach is a huge benefit to our user.

(Large preview)

This article is a great for planning your messaging approach: Level-Up Email Campaigns With Customer Journey Mapping — Smashing Magazine.

Here’s some more great advice on planning email drip programmes:

User Research And Email/SMS

Researching the effectiveness of email and SMS is best done through AB testing. Testing different variants to see which performs better.

User research can help understand what content users will find useful and by what channel.

The Secret To Onboarding And Adoption: It Takes Time

Onboarding should be done gently, in short chunks offering value immediately. When it comes to asking for precious information like mobile phone number, bank account or email we need to demonstrate how we will deliver value.

To get a user to adopt our service takes time. We need to be able to deliver useful content over a long period of time to encourage them to keep using the product.

Next Up, Retention

In the first part we talked about the beginnings of the customer journey how to attract or users.

Coming up next, we’ll talk about how to retain users and get them to pay for our product — that holy grail of our user taking out a monthly subscription. Stay tuned!

The parts of the user journey The parts of the user journey. (Large preview)

This article is part of the UX design series sponsored by Adobe. Adobe XD tool is made for a fast and fluid UX design process, as it lets you go from idea to prototype faster. Design, prototype, and share — all in one app. You can check out more inspiring projects created with Adobe XD on Behance, and also sign up for the Adobe experience design newsletter to stay updated and informed on the latest trends and insights for UX/UI design.

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05:01
25+ Outstanding Photoshop Manipulation Tutorials to Sharpen Your Skills

August 20 2018

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jamovi 0.9.1.12 / 0.9.2.3 Preview (AGPL)

Perform various tests like ANOVA, regression, frequencies, and more starting from a set of spreadsheet data, with options to analyze syntax and save entire reports
18:13

Visitor Injured After Falling into Anish Kapoor Work

A visitor to an Anish Kapoor show at the Serralves museum in Porto was injured after falling into one of the artist’s works, an 8-foot deep hole titled Descent into Limbo. The visitor is believed to have slipped and fell, although an investigation is still underway.  Read more at Art Newspaper  
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Alex Katz Profiled in New Yorker

The New Yorker has a piece this week on Alex Katz, and his impressive influence on the field of painting, despite remaining relatively overlooked by the art market’s blue-chip buyers.  “I never fit in,” he says. “I’m not a Pop artist, and people can’t see my work as realistic, either.” Read more at New Yorker
11:45

UX And HTML5: Let’s Help Users Fill In Your Mobile Form (Part 1)

UX And HTML5: Let’s Help Users Fill In Your Mobile Form (Part 1)

UX And HTML5: Let’s Help Users Fill In Your Mobile Form (Part 1)

Stéphanie Walter
2018-08-20T13:45:31+02:002018-08-20T14:29:45+00:00

Forms are one of the most basic primary interactions users will have with your websites (and mobile apps). They link people together and let them communicate. They let them comment on articles and explain to the author how they strongly disagree with what they’ve written. They let people chat directly on a dating app to meet “the one”. Whether for forums, product orders, online communities, account creation or online payment, forms are a big part of users’ online life.

It’s 2018, and we have more mobile than desktop users around the globe. Yet, we still treat those users as second-class citizens of the web. Everybody writes and speaks about user experience all the time. So, why, why, why are so many websites and products still doing it wrong. Why is their mobile user experience damaged for half of the world? Why is it still a pain, why is it still super-hard to book a flight and register an account in a mobile form today? Users expect better!

Recommended reading: World Wide Web, Not Wealthy Western Web

This is the first part of a series of two articles. In this one, I will sum up some essential best practices to improve your mobile forms, including scannability and readability. I will guide you through label and input placement, size and optimization. We will see how to choose the right form element to reduce interaction costs. Finally, you will learn how to prevent and deal with errors on mobile forms.

In the second part, I will take a closer look at specific mobile capabilities and HTML5 form elements, and we will go beyond classic form elements to make unique and enjoyable web applications and websites.

Note: While most of the code enhancement in this article are web-related (because I don’t know Swift or Java), the usability best practices hold true for mobile applications.

Nope, we can't do any magic tricks, but we have articles, books and webinars featuring techniques we all can use to improve our work. Smashing Members get a seasoned selection of magic front-end tricks — e.g. live designing sessions and perf audits, too. Just sayin'! ;-)

Explore Smashing Wizardry →

Form Design 101: Prioritizing Scannability And Readability

“A form is the name, value, pairs, in a structure for storing data on a computer barfed out as labels and input fields to human being.” This is a direct quote from Luke Wroblewski at a conference. Like him, I believe that most form usability issues come from this tendency to serve the structure of the database to users.

Strong Information Architecture

To build better forms, you first need to take a few steps away from your database’s structure. Try to understand how users want to fill in forms. This is where doing some usability testing and user research on your forms becomes handy. User mental models is a UX concept that can help you with that. Nielsen Norman Group describes it as “what the user believes about the system at hand”. Ask your tester to think aloud and tell you how they would fill the form. Which steps do they expect? What come first? What comes next? This will give you a better idea of how to structure your form in a more user-friendly way.

Visually grouping fields that belong together will also help users fill a form. In the code, use the fieldset tag to group them programmatically. It will also help screen readers understand the hierarchy.

example of visually grouped forms Chunking information and grouping related pieces of information helps the human brain process this information in an easy, more readable way (Large preview)

If the form is long, don’t expose everything by default. Be smart about what you display. Use branching wisely to display only the fields that people need. In a checkout form, for example, don’t display all of the detailed fields for all of the shipment options. This will overwhelm the user. Display enough information to help them choose the right shipment option. Then, display only the details and fields related to that choice.

User attention spans get shorter with time: Ask for optional things at the end of the form. For instance, if your form is a customer-satisfaction survey, ask for demographic information at the end. Better yet, auto-fill them, if possible. Ask users only for what’s necessary.

Finally, plan ahead for localization: What will happen when your form gets translated? What will happen, say, for German? Will your design still work?

Label Placement And Input Optimization

Single-Column Layout Works Best

Due to the lack of space, you don’t get endless options for placing labels and fields on mobile screens:

  • Present fields in a single-column layout. There’s no room on mobile for multiple columns. Multi-columns forms are not a great idea on desktop either anyway.
  • In portrait mode, it’s better to place the label on top of the field so that users can see what’s in the field when they type.
portrait mode In portrait mode, it’s better to put the label on top of the field. (Large preview)
  • In landscape mode, the screen’s height is reduced. You might want to put labels on the left and inputs on the right. But test it to make sure it works.
landscape mode In landscape mode, you want to put labels on the left and inputs on the right. (Large preview)

For more on label placement, see Baymard Institute’s “Mobile Form Usability: Place Labels Above the Field”.

Labels Should Be Clear And Visible And Work Without Context

Remember that as soon as a field gets focus, the keyboard opens and will take at least one third of the screen’s area. On small mobile screens, users will also have to scroll to fill the form. This means that they will lose part of the context while filling the form. Plan accordingly:

  • Your labels should be clear, visible text that can be read and understood without context. User should be able to complete each label and field pair as a separate task, even if they lose context.
labels should be clear Just “Address” without context is more complicated to process that “Shipping Address”. (Large preview)
  • Avoid jargon, abbreviations and industry-specific language whenever you can.
  • Be consistent. If you use “customer” in a label once, stick with that word. Avoid using “clients” later because it might confuse users.
  • The font size should be big enough. Test your form on real devices as soon as possible, and adjust the size accordingly.
  • All-caps text can be hard to read for some users. You might want to avoid using all-caps text on labels.
  • The label copy should be short and scannable. If a field needs clarification, don’t put it in the label. Use a field description instead.
Avoid full caps, jargon and very long labels. Avoid full caps, jargon and very long labels. (Large preview)
Input Size Best Practice

If possible, the size of the input element should match the size of the expected content. This will help users quickly fill in the form and understand what’s expected.

Properly sized inputs help the user scan the form and understand what is expected in the fields. Properly sized inputs help the user scan the form and understand what is expected in the fields. (Large preview)

Using Masks To Avoid Splitting Inputs On Mobile

Don’t split inputs just for the sake of formatting. It’s especially annoying on mobile, where users can’t use the keyboard to navigate between fields. It requires extra taps just to go to the next field to fill in the form. You might be thinking, “But I’ll automagically put the focus on the next field when I get the required number of characters in that field”. That could work. But you will have taken control of the UI, which becomes unpredictable for the user. Also, it would be a pain if you automagically sent them to the next field and they needed to correct something in the last field. Finally, it’s more complicated to guess what’s mandatory with split inputs. So, let’s stop playing the “But what if” game and simply not split inputs.

Don’t split the phone number into many little inputs. Don’t split the phone number into many little inputs. (Large preview)

I get it: You still want to be able to format your user’s data in small pieces to help them fill in your fields. And you are perfectly right about that. To do so, you could use masks. Instead of splitting an input, just put a mask on top of it, to visually help the user fill it. Here is a video example of what a mask would look like to help users fill in a credit-card field:

Masks help to prevent errors by guiding users to the correct format. Avoid gradually revealing them — show the format directly. Also, avoid putting fake values in the mask. Users might think it’s already filled. That’s why I’ve replaced the numbers with a little “X” in my demo. Find what works best for your type of input.

Finally, remember that some data can vary between countries, and sometimes the format changes, too (phone numbers, for example). Plan accordingly.

Efficient Fields Descriptions

Displaying efficient field descriptions can make the difference between a seamless and a painful form experience.

What Can Descriptions Be Used For?

Descriptions can help users in so many ways. Here are a few examples.

  • What Exactly Are You Asking For?

    For whatever database-related reason, some shipment companies ask for "Address 1" and “Address 2” fields. This is highly confusing for users, but you might not have a choice here. Add description fields to help users understand what they need to put in each field.

    Inline descriptions help users understand why you need this information. Inline descriptions help users understand why you need this information. (Large preview)

    The same goes for acronyms and abbreviations. I know I said that you should avoid them, but sometimes you can’t. If you work on complex forms for a particular industry, for instance, they might have their own set of abbreviations. Any new user who needs to fill in the form might not be familiar (yet) with those abbreviations. Having a description available somewhere will help them.

  • Why Do You Need This Information?
    Users might be reluctant to give you personal information if they don’t understand why you need it and what you will do with it. But sometimes you still need to ask for such information for legal reasons (like date of birth for a website that sells alcohol). Using field descriptions here will help users understand why this kind of information is needed.

    On e-commerce websites, you might want to ask for the user’s phone number in case the delivery person needs to contact them. This is a legitimate reason. So, again, use descriptions to explain to e-commerce users why you need their phone number.

    Sometimes you need information for legal or practical reasons. Again, tell the user why. Sometimes you need information for legal or practical reasons. Again, tell the user why. (Large preview)
  • “Where Do I Find the Information?”
    If your users need to find certain information somewhere else in order to fill a form, tell them where to find it. I worked on a mobile app that lets user track their house. Users needed to pair the app to the monitoring device using a serial number. It’s not very easy to find this serial number on the device; it requires some instruction. We added a little ? button next to the serial number field. The button opens a modal that shows a picture and some indication to help the user understand where to find the serial number on the monitoring device. E-commerce websites do the same with promo codes: They give indicators that tell users where to find the codes. Users can tap to open a pop-up in which they can find extra information to help them fill in the field Users can tap on the link (left) or the question mark (right) to open a popup where they can find extra information to help them fill in the field. (Large preview)
  • “How Should I Format The Information?”
    Some fields need a particular format. In this case, use descriptions to let users know the formatting rules up front. Here are a few examples:
    • Phone number: do I need to put the international dialing code (+xx) in front of the field?
    • Is there a maximum length? Twitter on mobile does a good job with that one.
    • When dealing with monetary amounts, is the format with comma (like 10,000) or a space (like 10 000)?
    • What format do you expect for dates? I’ll let you check on Wikipedia what a nightmare that is. The difference between DD MM YY and MM DD YY can cause a *lot* of trouble to users when booking online.
    Note that a lot of those formatting issues can be solved by input masks. We will come to that later in the article (or you can jump right in if you are impatient). In the old 180-character days, Twitter used to tell you exactly how many characters you had left. Also, the date format varies from one country to another, so you might want to explain what to expect. In the old 180-character days, Twitter used to tell you exactly how many characters you had left. Also, the date format varies from one country to another, so you might want to explain what to expect. (Large preview)
How To Display Descriptions

In the examples, above, we saw a few ways to display field descriptions. Here is a summary of what to do:

  • Inline descriptions should be directly visible and displayed next to the field.
  • If you need more in-depth descriptions with heavy content, you can use tooltips or modals. Tooltips are generally triggered on hover on desktop and on tap on mobile. The same goes for the modals: Open it when the user taps the help icon or “see more” link, for instance.

Be Careful With Placeholders

I get it: it’s tempting to remove fields on mobile to gain space and use placeholders instead. We’ve all gone down that road. But please don’t. The HML5 specification is clear about this: “The placeholder attribute represents a short hint (a word or short phrase) intended to aid the user with data entry”. And here is why:

  • The placeholder disappears when the user starts typing. The user must then rely on short-term memory to remember what they are supposed to put in the field. If they can’t, they will need to empty the field to see the indication.
  • It’s hard for users to double-check fields before submitting because the fields no longer have any label indications.
  • It’s hard to recover from errors once a field has been submitted because, again, there’s no label to help the user.
Placeholders rely on short-term memory Placeholders rely on short-term memory. They make forms hard to check before submission. And recovering from errors is hard, especially when error messages don’t help much. (Large preview)

Even if you use placeholders with labels, you might still have some issues. It’s hard to tell the difference between a filled field and a field with a placeholder. I’m a UX designer who writes about mobile form design and even I got tricked last week by one of those. If it happens to me, it will happen to your users — trust me on that one. Finally, most placeholders have light-gray text, so you might have some contrast issues as well.

It’s easy to mistake some form fields for being filled in It’s easy to mistake some of these fields for being filled in. The right screenshot is something I’ve seen online. I’ll let you guess what is filled in and what is not. (Large preview)

If you want to go deeper in this topic, there’s a great article named “Placeholder Attribute Is Not A Label, and also Joshua Winn and FeedbackGuru go into detail on why this is a bad idea. Nielsen Norman Group also wrote a piece on the topic, named “Placeholders in Form Fields Are Harmful.”

Placeholders are not mandatory in HTML5. From a usability point of view, you most certainly don’t need a placeholder in every field of your form. But with the massive adoption of Bootstrap and other frameworks, it looks like a lot of people just copy and paste components. Those components have placeholders, so I guess people feel kind of obligated to add something to the placeholder in the code? If your form’s placeholders look like “Please fill your — label — here”, you’re doing it wrong.

form example I’m not joking: I’ve actually seen forms with 12 fields, with each placeholder less useful than the last. (Large preview)

Labels inside fields could, nevertheless, work well for short forms in which fields are predictable. Login forms are a good candidate for this. But please don’t use the HTML5 placeholder to code this. Use a real label in the code and move it around with CSS and JavaScript.

Labels inside fields can work on really short forms, like login forms, where users don’t have a lot of information to remember. Labels inside fields can work on really short forms, like login forms, where users don’t have a lot of information to remember. (Large preview)

Since the success of Android’s material design, a pattern has started to emerge: the floating label. This label is inside the field when the field is not filled in, so it takes a bit less vertical space on mobile. When users start interacting with the field, the label moves above the field.

This looks like an interesting way to gain some space, without running into the “placeholders in place of labels” issues cited above. Nevertheless, it does not solve the problem of users possibly mistaking a placeholder for filled-in content.

The floating label, even if not perfect, is an interesting alternative to gaining vertical space on the screen. The floating label, even if not perfect, is an interesting alternative to gaining vertical space on the screen. (Large preview)

Interaction Cost Reduction For Successful Forms

Reducing the interaction cost (i.e. the number of taps, swipes, etc.) of users achieving their task will help you build a seamless form experience. There are different techniques to achieve that. Let’s look at a few of them in detail.

A Magic Study On The Internet Told Me To Reduce The Number Of Fields

More fields mean fewer conversions, right? You might have encountered the “we reduced our subscription form from 11 to 4 fields, and it drove up conversions by 160%” study. It’s a classic. And if you look at their contact form, it kind of makes sense. Why would users want to fill in 11 fields just to contact the company? You can’t ask such a big commitment of people who barely know you, right?

Start by asking only for useful information. Why do you need a person’s gender to create an account for them? Why do you have two lines for the address if your subscription form is for an online service?

Ask only for the information you need. And then ask for the information in context. If you have an e-commerce website, users might be more inclined to give you their address in the shipping section of the checkout process than when they register. It will make your e-commerce registration form so much easier to fill on mobile!

Ask only for the information you need Ask for the user’s address in the shipping section of the checkout, not when they register. (Large preview)

Also, don’t blindly trust every statistic and study you find on the Internet. Remember the 11-fields-to-4 study? Well another more recent study showed that by reducing fields from 9 to 6, conversions dropped by 14%. Shocking, isn’t it? Why? Well, they removed the most engaging fields. Long story short, they then went back to 9 fields, put the most important on the top, and voilà, conversions increased by 19.21%.

The bottom line is that while these studies are interesting, those websites are not your website. Don’t blindly trust the first study you find on the Internet.

So, what can you do? Test. Test. And test!

  • Do some user testing to see the time to completion of your mobile form.
  • Measure drop outs.
  • Measure problems with certain fields.
  • Measure the frustration associated with certain fields. How willing are users to give that information? How personal is that information?

Optimizing Touch Interactions

Making Controls Touch-Friendly

If your fields are too small or hard to reach, users will make errors and will need extra interactions to achieve their goals. Remember Fitt’s law? You could apply it to mobile design as well: Make your labels, fields and form controls easy to tap by increasing the touch target size. For labels on the web, a little more padding can increase the touchable area. Sometimes you will also need to add some margins between elements to avoid missed taps.

Also, don’t forget to link labels with their components by pairing for and ID values. That way, if the user misses a tap on the label, the corresponding field will still get focus.

On mobile, respect mobile touch-optimized best practices, and make sure inputs are big enough to be easily tappable. On mobile, respect mobile touch-optimized best practices, and make sure inputs are big enough to be easily tappable. (Large preview)

Steven Hoober conducted some user research on touch areas. You’ll find a summary in “Designing for Touch”. Based on what he discovered, he built a little plastic ruler tool: the mobile touch template. The tool could help you make sure your touch areas are big enough for mobile forms and more generally for mobile design.

Image from Steven Hoober Image from Steven Hoober’s mobile touch template. (Large preview)

To learn more about designing for touch you can read the following:

Providing Feedback

Mobile users don’t have a mouse (no kidding), so they don’t get the “click” feedback that desktop users get when hitting a button. Mobile form users need clear feedback when interacting with elements:

  • Provide a focus state for the form field that the user is interacting with.
  • Provide visual feedback when the user interacts with a button.

I’m not a big fan of material design’s ripple effect on buttons. But I must admit that the animations on Android provide clear feedback when the user interacts with a button.

Honor The Next And Previous Button Order

Finally, honor the next and previous buttons on mobile keyboards. Users can use them to quickly navigate fields. The tabindex order should match the visual order of fields and components.

iOS has small arrows on the keyboard to go from one field to another. iOS has small arrows on the keyboard to go from one field to another. (Large preview)

Avoid Dropdowns On Mobile If Possible

Dropdowns (the HTML select element) on the web require a lot of tabs and interactions. Therefore, as Luke Wroblewski said, they should be the UI of last resort. Many other UI components work better than dropdowns in many situations.

Segment controls and radio buttons are good alternatives to dropdowns if you have between two and four options. Why hide the options under a dropdown when you can show them all directly on one screen? Note that, like radio buttons, segment controls are mutually exclusive.

Example of segment controls in the iOnic library. Example of segment controls in the iOnic library. (Large preview)

A country list is a good candidate for a component. A dropdown of over a hundred countries is an interaction nightmare on mobile. It’s OK if you are looking for Afghanistan (at the beginning of the list) or Zimbabwe (the end of the list). If you’re looking for Luxembourg, you will end up in a game of scrolling to reach the middle of the list, going too far to the letter M, trying to come back to L, and so on.

Long dropdowns can be replaced by predictive text input fields. When the user starts typing L, the interface would propose nine countries. If they add a U — voilà! — Luxembourg it is. Four interactions instead of two, versus as many as six or seven scrolling interactions with the dropdown.

Long dropdowns are a nightmare when you’re searching for France. Predictive fields work better. Long dropdowns are a nightmare when you’re searching for France. Predictive fields work better. (Large preview)

If you need users to pick a date, forget about splitting it into a day, month and year dropdown like people are used to doing on paper forms. Replace multiple date dropdowns with a date picker. The HTML5 input type=date works in most cases. But you might have some special needs and end up building your own date picker in JavaScript, especially if you are in the booking business (hotels, cars, flights).

A double date-picker built in JavaScript makes it easy to pick arrival and departure dates with a minimum of interaction A double date-picker built in JavaScript makes it easy to pick arrival and departure dates with a minimum of interaction (Large preview)

In his article “Mobile DropDowns Revisited”, Klaus Schaefers explains how using a date-picker for arrival and departure dates made interactions 60% faster.

A date-picker, using HTML5 or JavaScript, instead of dropdowns, via Mobile DropDowns Revisited A date-picker, using HTML5 or JavaScript, instead of dropdowns, via Mobile DropDowns Revisited. (Large preview)

Let’s stick with the booking business. Suppose the user needs to add multiple travellers to their itinerary. You can **replace the dropdown *with a* stepper** to select the number of passengers. A stepper is a control that allows the user to increase and decrease values simply by tapping on + and - buttons. That tends to be faster when fewer than six persons have to be added. It’s also more intuitive. Below is an example of a stepper used in the Android-native Airbnb app to select guests, and on the mobile-optimized website of Kayak to add passengers.

A stepper is used in the Android-native Airbnb app to select guests and on the mobile-optimized website of Kayak to add passengers. A stepper is used in the Android-native Airbnb app to select guests and on the mobile-optimized website of Kayak to add passengers. (Large preview)

A final alternative to dropdowns is the list view. The options would be listed in a specific subview, as radio buttons, for instance. This is mostly how Android settings work.

In our monitoring app, when the user clicks on “notification type 1”, it opens a list view with the options. In our monitoring app, when the user clicks on “notification type 1”, it opens a list view with the options. (Large preview)

Getting Smart With Auto-Completion

If you want to decrease the interaction cost of your form, be smart. Don’t ask for information that you can auto-detect or guess based on other information users have given you. Autocomplete and prefill as much as you can.

Places and Addresses

If the user searches for a place or needs to enter an address, you can offer auto-completion to help them. As they type, an API would fill in the rest of the address for them. This also reduces errors.

You could use:

In the Algolia Place demo, as the user types, it offers suggestions and can autocomplete the field.

In France and many other countries, you can guess the city based on the area code. So, if a French user enters an area code, you could automatically auto-complete or at least propose the city. My country, Luxembourg, is small (don’t make fun of me). My area code is linked to my street. So, if I enter my area code, the form should even be able to suggest my street.

Credit Cards

Another area where auto-detection is easy is credit cards. You don’t need to ask the user what type of credit card they have. You can auto-detect this based on the initial numbers they enter. There’s even a library that can do the job for you.


A demo of the payment script that detects credit card type.
Using HTML5 Autocompletion (Autofill)

The HTML autocomplete attribute can prefill fields based on the user’s earlier inputs. This attribute has an on and off state. Some smart people have started working on a specification to make this more powerful and to extend the autocomplete attribute for form fields. The WHATWG also has an interesting list.

Chrome and other mobile browsers already support some of the extended values for credit cards and names. This means that users can prefill forms with their name and credit card data that they use on other websites.

Helping users check out faster with AutofillHelp users check out faster with Autofill (Source: Google Developers) (Large preview)

In short, when you must choose between different systems, count the number of interactions each is going to require.

Mistakes Happen: Handling Errors In Mobile Forms

The last step on our journey towards better mobile forms is handling errors and mistakes. We can try to reduce mistakes to ease the user’s cognitive load. We can also help them recover from errors, because no matter how great your form design is, mistakes happen.

Avoiding Errors While Filling The Forms

“Prevention is better than a cure,” my mother used to say. That’s also true of form design: Preventing errors will improve your mobile form’s experience.

Explicit Format Limitation

“Be conservative in what you do. Be liberal in what you accept from others.” This robustness principle can be applied to form fields as well. If possible, let the user enter data in any format.

If you think you need to limit what a user can enter in the field, start by asking yourself “why”. In the user experience field, we have a technique called “the three whys”. If the answer is “because blah blah database”, maybe it’s time to change things. For instance, why do you refuse special characters like é, à and ö in the user name field? I wrote an article explaining how rude forms are to me when I try to enter “Stéphanie” as a user name. I’m still trying to figure out a good reason for that (apart from database reasons).

If you have a good reason to require a specific format from users, state this up front. You can use HTML5 placeholders to give users a hint about what the data should look like, but again, be careful with those. You could also use all of the field description techniques explained at the beginning of this article. Finally, input masks can guide users towards the right format.

Marking Mandatory Fields (And Optional Ones)

Don’t wait for users to submit a half-completed form to tell them about required fields. If a field is mandatory, users should know about it. Marking mandatory fields with an asterix (*) and a legend has become a standard pattern for forms. The good part is that it does not take much space. The problem is that it has no semantic value, so it can cause accessibility issues if poorly coded and if you rely on people’s habits with form interaction.

You could instead explicitly mark both mandatory and optional fields with the words “required” (or “mandatory”) and “optional”. Both Baymard Institute and Luke Wroblewski agree on that. This avoids ambiguity with long forms on mobile, such as when using a scroller, proceeding with something else, then coming back and not remembering if mandatory fields were marked with an asterisk or something else.

A form with both mandatory and optional fields marked. A form with both mandatory and optional fields marked. (Large preview)

Eventually, the decision on how to mark those fields will depend on the design and length of the field and on the context. The best way to know whether you’ve made the right decision is, again, to test the form.

Sensible Defaults

Be careful about default selected options in forms. When I applied for my previous job, there was an information form. The marital status was optional. They made the first element in the dropdown, “divorced”, the default field. So, I could either not answer (because it was an optional field) and let the system believe that I was divorced, or correct this and disclose my actual marital status even if I did not want to.

Also, be careful about gender. Again, have an option for people who don’t want to disclose it; make clear why you’re asking for their gender; better yet, ask for pronouns, or don’t ask if you don’t really need to. If you are interested in this topic, I recommend “Designing Forms for Gender Diversity and Inclusion.” And if the gender is optional, again, don’t auto-check the first choice, otherwise people won’t be able to uncheck that radio button and choose not to answer.

Should I leave the default and lie, or put the right information even I don’t want to? Should I leave the default and lie, or put the right information even I don’t want to? (Large preview)

Smart defaults, on the other hand, can help users avoid mistakes when filling a form. Unless you’re in a Dr. Who episode, you’re not supposed to book a hotel in the past. Booking.com understands that. When you open the date-picker on the website, the default date is set to the current date and you can’t select a date in the past. When you select a return date, the default is the day after the departure date.

Booking.com’s smart defaults help users avoid mistakes. You can’t search in the past or before your arrival date. Booking.com’s smart defaults help users avoid mistakes. You can’t search in the past or before your arrival date. (Large preview)
Less Painful Password Experience

I’ve written about password-less authentication, but you can’t always use those techniques. Users will eventually have to create a password and enter it in a mobile form. And most of the time, that experience sucks. Here are a few ideas on how to make it better and help users avoid mistakes.

  • When Creating An Account
    I won’t get into the details of what kind of passwords you should require and how many characters they should be composed of — plenty of articles on that topic are on the web — just make up your mind about your password criteria. When users create an account, be proactive, not reactive. For the love of Cthulhu, don’t let people guess. Tell users your password criteria up front.

    A lot of websites now show you a gauge for password strength telling you in real time what is missing. This is an interesting and excellent pattern. KLM uses it in its sign-in form: KLM sign-in form example KLM sign-in form example (Large preview) But there are still some big problems with this design.
  1. They don’t tell users their password criteria up front. Users who want to generate a password (using a password manager, for instance) must first guess that they need to first interact with the field in other to see the password criteria.
  2. They limit the password’s length to 12 characters, but they never tell users how many characters are left. Sure, let’s add "counting the dots" to the cognitive load of building a password with so many criteria. After 12 characters, you can keep on typing on the keyboard, and nothing will happen.
  3. What happens if, like me, you reached the 12-character limit but haven’t met all of the criteria? Well, you would just have to delete the entire password and start over again.
  4. Finally, you must enter the password twice. How is a user supposed to remember and retype the password that they just created based on those criteria while counting the dots?
  5. Back to 1, generating a password with a password manager.

If KLM wanted to make this form better, it could provide a mask/unmask option for the password. Doing so, it would not need to ask for the same password twice. Users could visually check that the password they typed is the one they want.


TransferWise doesn’t solve my first problem in the list, but at least I can unmask while typing.
  • When Logging In
    In a login form, a mask/unmask password option would tremendously improve the user experience.
    A button to show and hide the password in a form.

    Amazon has an interesting history of iterating on passwords in its login form. It used to have a version in which you could not see the password. The next iteration allowed users to reveal it. Then, the password was revealed by default, and you could hide it. This is what is looked like in 2015:

    Showing Passwords on Log-In Screens by Luke Wroblewski (2015) Showing Passwords on Log-In Screens, Luke Wroblewski, 2015 (Large preview)

    Amazon tested the last version, and 60% people got suspicious. So, they replaced the “hide password” unchecked checkbox with a “show password” checked box. This would show the password in smaller characters, under the field, while the user typed. This is what it looks like at the time of writing this article:

    Amazon’s show and hide password functionality Amazon’s show and hide password functionality (Large preview)

    As you can see, there’s always room for improvement.

Inline Validation

If you are familiar with usability principles, you might know the Gestalt law of proximity. On mobile, avoid the summary of errors at the top of the page, with no contextual information, after the user has tapped the submit button.

Instead, error messages should be located close to the errors themselves.

An example of inline validation An example of inline validation (Large preview)
Real-Time Validation

You also don’t need to wait until users hit the submit button. You can validate fields and display feedback while the user is filling them in.

A few tips:

  • As mentioned earlier, password fields would benefit from real-time validation and feedback on each keystroke.
  • You might also want to validate user names in real time when accounts are being created, to make sure they’re available. Twitter does a good job of that.
  • Don’t validate every keystroke. Wait until the user has finished typing. (Use JavaScript blur for web forms, or just wait a few seconds to detect inactivity.)

Note: *Mihael Konjević has written a nice article on “Inline Validation in Forms: Designing the Experience.” He explains the concept of “reward early, punish late.”*

“If the user is entering the data in the field that was in a valid state, perform the validation after the data entry.”
“If the user is entering the data in the field that was in an invalid state, perform the validation during the data entry.”

Example from Keechma based on the article.

Color Matters

I’m not saying that color matters just because of my current ginger, pink and purple hair color. Color really matters in form design.

There are some conventions on the web that you don’t want to break. Non-colorblind users know that red is for errors, yellow is for warnings, and green is almost always for confirmation or success. It’s best to stick with these three colors. Red can make people anxious, though. The user might think they’ve made a really serious mistake. Using orange or yellow for error messages could cause less panic. The problem with yellow and orange is that it’s hard to find colorblind-friendly hues of them.

Colors have different connotations across countries and cultures. Be careful with them. Colors have different connotations across countries and cultures. Be careful with them. (Large preview)

Speaking of colorblindness: Color should not be the only way to convey an error message. This is an accessibility criterion.

In the example below on the left, the field with an error is in orange, and the field that has been corrected has turned green. I used a colorblind testing tool to take the screenshot in the middle: You can’t distinguish between the default gray border and the green one anymore. Adding some icons in the last screenshot ensures that the error messages are conveyed to colorblind people.

Color should not be the only way to convey error messages. The colorblind simulation in the middle shows that the green border cannot be seen by a colorblind person. Color should not be the only way to convey error messages. The colorblind simulation in the middle shows that the green border cannot be seen by a colorblind person. (Large preview)

Recovering From Errors: Writing User-Friendly Error Messages

At this point, we’ve done everything we can to help users fill our forms and avoid errors. But sometimes, despite our best effort, mistakes happen. It’s time to figure out how to help users recover from those mistakes.

First, remember: Don’t hijack control of the system. If a problem isn’t critical, the user should be able to continue interacting with as much of the rest of the interface as possible. Avoid those JavaScript alert error message and modals that blocks users whenever possible. Also, if your form needs some permission, request it in the flow of use. If permission is not granted, do not consider this an error because it is not. Be careful about the copy you use here.

You’re Not A Robot, And Neither Are Your Users

Robots are cool, I know. But you’re not a robot, and neither are your users. Yet so many error messages are still so poorly written. Here are a few tips when it comes to human-friendly error messages:

  • Never show a raw error message, like “An error of type 2393 has occurred. Server could not complete the operation.” Instead, explain what happened in human language and why it happened.
  • Never show a dead-end error message, like “An error has occurred.” Instead suggest ways to recover from the error. Write actionable copy.
  • Never show a vague error message, like “A server with the specified hostname could not be found”, with a “Try again” button. Instead, make error messages informative and consistent. Please don’t sound like a robot.
  • Don’t assume that people know the context of a message. Your users are not tech-savvy geeks. Instead, explain to them in plain language, without technical jargon, how to recover from this error.
Examples of non-human-friendly error messages. Eek! Examples of non-human-friendly error messages. Eek! (Large preview)
Beware The Language You Use In Messages

Whatever you write, avoid making people feel stupid about a mistake. If possible, leave out negative words; they tend to scare people and make them even more anxious. Use a courteous, positive, affirming tone instead.

Don’t blame users for mistakes; blame the system instead. The system won’t hold a grudge, I promise. Shift the user’s attention to how the system could not process the action, and explain to them how to find a solution.

A little trick is to read your own message out loud. It will help you hear whether it works or is too harsh or too casual, etc.

You could also get creative with error messages and incorporate imagery and humour to make them less threatening. This will really depend on your brand’s identity and tone, though.

To help you write better error message, I suggest you read the following:

Time To Submit The Form

The user has filled in the form, there are no more errors, and everything looks good. Finally, it’s time to submit the form!

The first rule is, don’t mask the submit button. Seriously! I wonder what twisted mind came up with this idea, but I’ve seen it in some forms. The submit button would be displayed only once all required fields were filled in without any errors. It’s disturbing for the user to wonder whether something is wrong or the form’s button has not loaded or the website is broken and so on.

If you don’t want users to be able to hit the submit button if there’s missing mandatory fields or there are validation errors, use the disabled HTML attribute on the submit input. You will need to re-enable the button using JavaScript once the form is valid and ready for submission.

Do not hide the submit button. Instead, deactivate it until users have filled in the required information. Do not hide the submit button. Instead, deactivate it until users have filled in the required information. (Large preview)

If you have a primary and secondary call to action, use color, size and styling to show the hierarchy.

Example of primary and secondary actions Example of primary and secondary actions (Large preview)

If are wondering whether the confirmation button should come before or after the cancellation button, so am I (and a lot of other people). If you are building a native app, stick to the OS guidelines. It’s become particularly fun since Android changed the button positions in its fourth version. On the web, it’s more complicated because there are no real guidelines. Regardless of the OS, here are some general guidelines for mobile-optimized submit buttons:

  • Give the call to action descriptive, actionable verbs.
  • Provide visual feedback when the user taps it.
  • If you have two buttons, make the primary action stand out.
  • Unless you’re working on a very specific back-office enterprise form (in which case, you’ll have a lot of challenges optimizing for mobile), avoid a reset button. Users might confuse it with the submit button and will lose all of their data by accident.

Conclusion

In this first part, I’ve discussed a lot of little techniques to take your form to the next level and help users fill it in. Some of these general guidelines and mobile best practices might not work 100% of the time — that’s the catch with best practices. So, always test your forms on real users and real devices, and adapt the guidelines to your users’ specific needs and experience.

Also, do some regression and automated functional testing — again, on real devices. Chrome’s mobile emulator won’t be enough to test touch-optimized forms. I say this because I had launched an e-commerce website with a search form that didn’t work on mobile. We only did automated testing using an emulator. Here is what happened. The search form was hidden under a search icon. You could tap on the button, which opened a box with the search field. It worked by emulating a mouse hover as a touch event. We tested tapping on the button, and it opened the box. Nobody tried to launch a search. So, nobody (not even the client) saw that the search field disappeared as soon as users tried to interact with it. What happened? When the input element got focus, the button lost the hover state, so it closed the box with the field. Automated testing was not able to catch this because the input was not losing focus. So, we launched an e-commerce website without search functionality on mobile. Not a super experience.

In the second part of this series, we will see more advanced mobile-specific techniques. We will see how to use cool HTML5 features to format fields and how to use mobile capabilities to take the mobile user experience to the next level.

Smashing Editorial(lf, ra, al, il)
07:55

New Course: Secure Your WordPress Site With SSL

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05:10

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August 19 2018

21:17

Paris – Gordon Matta-Clark: “Anarchitect” at Jeu de Paume Through September 23rd, 2018

Gordon Matta-Clark, Day’s End (1975), via Art Observed Featuring one hundred artworks by Gordon Matta-Clark, Jeu de Paume anchors its summer offering with a show dedicated to the artist’s equally enigmatic and engaging practice, one that worked through principles of urban encounter, agency and abstraction with a unique sense of humor.  The show, titled Anarchitect explores the importance of Matta-Clark’s practice […]
16:31

sokit 1.3.20111130 (GPL)

Send or receive various TCP or UDP packages by turning to this third-party software solution that was written in the C++ programming language
16:14

TouchProxy 1.0.0.0 (GPL)

Protect your Internet connection by turning to this software utility that provides you with an easy to use remote touch injection client
03:20

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August 18 2018

08:59

Sonhos

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Agosto, 2018
6 horas da manhã

O galo canta a despertar 
o poema,
relógio que vem de longe
sem falta nem avaria.
É a hora
da lucidez eclodir com estrondo.
Na aragem fresca da manhã
alguma coisa indefinida, indefinível
amainou as iras do tempo.
E o ar é por inteiro carícia,
e não há como lhe resistir.
Deuses e demónios,
ou dormem ainda
ou deixaram de se gladiar
lá no império do impossível.
Assinaram em sítio incerto
um acordo de paz,
temporário,
que a vida é guerrear e matar
para que viva a morte,
já se sabe...

Ah!... mas hoje escalarei
um prodigioso Everest
só para ver nascer mais um dia,
sem manhas
nem obsoletas verdades concretas.
Que meus sonhos se fazem
de outras músicas, de outras letras.



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Don't be the product, buy the product!

Schweinderl