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September 19 2017

21:42

diário

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<w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" 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Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Smart Hyperlink"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Hashtag"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Unresolved Mention"/> </w:LatentStyles></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]><style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:8.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:107%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style><![endif]-->
arrumei o computador. estava um caos.
tanta coisa [mal] escrita!
por vezes, de um dia inteiro, salva-se
uma só palavra:
delete

será bastante a vida sonhada
para escrever um poema?







16:00

Creating Digital Signatures With Swift

The main purpose of a digital signature is to verify the integrity of some information. For a simple example, let's say you had a file that was transferred over the network and you want to check that the entire file was transferred correctly. In that case, you would use a checksum.

“A checksum is a small-sized datum derived from a block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors which may have been introduced during its transmission or storage” — Wikipedia

How do we derive that checksum? The best option is to use a hash. A hash function will take a variable amount of data and will output a signature of fixed length. For example, we could publish a file along with its hash online. When someone downloads the file, they can then run the same hash function on their version of the file and compare the result. If the hashes are the same then the copied or downloaded file is the same as the original. 

A hash is also a one-way function. Given the resulting output, there is no computationally feasible way to reverse that hash to reveal what the original input was. SHA, Secure Hash Algorithm, is a well-known standard that refers to a group of hash functions that have this property and certain others, which make them useful for digital signatures.

About SHA

SHA has undergone many iterations since it was first published. The first and second iterations, SHA-0 and SHA-1, are now known to have major weaknesses. They are no longer approved for security implementations: they generally shouldn't be used for applications relying on security. However, the SHA-2 family includes versions called SHA-256 and SHA-512, and these are considered secure. "256" and "512" simply refer to the resulting number of bits produced. For this tutorial, we are going to use SHA-512.

Note: Another older popular hash algorithm was MD5. It was also found to have significant flaws.

Using SHA is great for checking if data was accidentally corrupted, but this doesn't prevent a malicious user from tampering with the data. Given that a hash output is of a fixed size, all an attacker needs to do is figure out which algorithm was used given the output size, alter the data, and recompute the hash. What we need is some secret information added to the mix when hashing the data so that the attacker cannot recompute the hash without knowledge of the secret. This is called a Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC).

HMAC

HMAC can authenticate a piece of information or message to make sure that it originated from the correct sender and that the information has not been altered. A common scenario is when you are talking to a server with a back-end API for your app. It may be important to authenticate to ensure that only your app is allowed to talk to the API. The API would have access control to a specific resource, such as a /register_user endpoint. The client would need to sign its request to the /register_user endpoint in order to successfully use it.

When signing a request, it is common practice to take selected parts of the request, such as POST parameters and the URL, and join them together into a string. Taking agreed-upon elements and putting them in a particular order is called canonicalization. In HMAC, the joined string is hashed along with the secret key to produce the signature. Instead of calling it a hash, we use the term signature in the same way that a person's signature in real life is used to verify identity or integrity. The signature is added back to the client's request as a request header (usually also named “Signature”). A signature is sometimes called a message digest, but the two terms can be used interchangeably.

Over on the API side, the server repeats the process of joining the strings and creating a signature. If the signatures match, it proves that the app must have possession of the secret. This proves the identity of the app. Since specific parameters of the request were also part of the string to be signed, it also guarantees the integrity of the request. It prevents an attacker from performing a man-in-the-middle attack, for example, and altering the request parameters to their liking.

In this code, the CCHmac function takes a parameter for the type of hash function to be used, along with two byte-strings and their lengths—the message and a secret key. For the best security, use at least a 256-bit (32 byte) key generated from a cryptographically secure random number generator. To verify everything is working correctly on the other side, run the example and then input the secret key and message on this remote server and verify that the output is the same.

You can also add a timestamp header to the request and signing string to make the request more unique. This can help the API weed out replay attacks. For example, the API could drop the request if the timestamp is 10 minutes stale.

While it's good to stick to using SHA versions that are secure, it turns out that many of the vulnerabilities of the insecure SHA versions do not apply to HMAC. For this reason, you may see SHA1 being used in production code. However, from a public relations standpoint, it may look bad if you have to explain why, cryptographically speaking, it is okay to use SHA1 in this context. Many of the weaknesses of SHA1 are due to what are called collision attacks. Code auditors or security researchers may expect your code to be collision resistant, regardless of the context. Also, if you write modular code where you can swap out the signing function for a different one in the future, you might forget to update the insecure hash functions. Therefore, we will still stick to SHA-512 as our algorithm of choice.

The HMAC CPU operations are fast, but one disadvantage is the problem of key exchange. How do we let each other know what the secret key is without it being intercepted? For example, maybe your API will need to dynamically add or remove multiple apps or platforms from a whitelist. In this scenario, apps would be required to register, and the secret would need to be passed to the app upon successful registration. You could send the key over HTTPS and use SSL pinning, but even then there is always a worry that somehow the key is stolen during the exchange. The solution to the problem of key exchange is to generate a key that doesn't ever need to leave the device in the first place. This can be accomplished using Public Key Cryptography, and a very popular and accepted standard is RSA.

RSA

RSA stands for Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (the authors of the cryptosystem). It involves taking advantage of the difficulty of factoring the product of two very large prime numbers. RSA can be used for encryption or authentication, although for this example we are going to be using it just for authentication. RSA generates two keys, a public and a private, which we can accomplish using the SecKeyGeneratePair function. When used for authentication, the private key is used to create the signature, while the public key verifies the signature. Given a public key, it is computationally unfeasible to derive the private key.

The next example demonstrates what Apple and all the popular gaming console companies use when distributing their software. Let's say your company creates and delivers a file periodically that users will drag into the file sharing portion of your app in iTunes. You want to make sure the files you send out are never tampered with before being parsed in the app. Your company will hold onto and guard the private key which it uses to sign the files. In the bundle of the app is a copy of the public key used to verify the file. Given that the private key is never transmitted or included in the app, there is no way for a malicious user to be able to sign their own versions of the files (apart from breaking into the company and stealing the private key).

We will use SecKeyRawSign to sign the file. It would be slow to sign the entire contents of the file using RSA, so the hash of the file is signed instead. Additionally, the data passed to RSA should also be hashed before signing because of some security weaknesses.

In this code, we used the CC_SHA512 function to specify SHA-512 again. (RSA, unlike HMAC, becomes insecure if the underlying hash function is insecure.) We are also using 4096 as the key size, which is set by the kSecAttrKeySizeInBits parameter. 2048 is the minimum recommended size. This is to prevent a powerful network of computer systems cracking the RSA key (by cracking I mean factoring the RSA key—also known as factorization of a public modulus). The RSA group has estimated that 2048-bit keys could become crackable some time before 2030. If you want your data to be safe beyond that time then it's a good idea to choose a higher key size like 4096.

The generated keys are in the form of SecKey objects. An issue with Apple's implementation of SecKey is that it does not include all of the essential information that makes up a public key, so it's not a valid DER-encoded X.509 certificate. Adding the missing information back into the format for an iOS or OS X app, even server-side platforms such as PHP, requires some work and involves working in a format known as ASN.1. Fortunately, this was fixed in iOS 10 with new SecKey functions for generating, exporting, and importing keys. 

The code below shows you the other side of the communication—the class that accepts a public key via SecKeyCreateWithData to verify files using the SecKeyRawVerify function.

You could try this out and verify that it works using a simple test like the following:

There is one downside to RSA—key generation is slow! The time to generate the keys is dependent on the size of the key. On newer devices a 4096 bit key takes only a few seconds, but if you run this code on an iPod Touch 4th generation, it may take about a minute. This is fine if you are just generating the keys a few times on a computer, but what happens when we need to generate keys frequently on a mobile device? We can't just lower the key size because that downgrades the security. 

So what's the solution? Well, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is an up-and-coming approach—a new set of algorithms based on elliptic curves over finite fields. ECC keys are much smaller in size and faster to generate than RSA keys. A key of only 256-bits offers a very strong level of security! To take advantage of ECC, we don't need to change a lot of code. We can sign our data using the same SecKeyRawSign function and then adjust the parameters to use Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA).

Tip: For more RSA implementation ideas, you can check out the SwiftyRSA helper library, which is focused on encryption as well as signing messages.

ECDSA

Imagine the following scenario: a chat app lets users send private messages to each other, but you want to make sure that an adversary has not changed the message on its way to the other user. Let's see how you could secure their communication with cryptography. 

First, each user generates a keypair of public and private keys on their mobile device. Their private keys are stored in memory and never leave the device, while the public keys are transmitted to each other. As before, the private key is used for signing the data being sent out, while the public key is used for verifying. If an attacker were to capture a public key during transit, all that could be done is to verify the integrity of the original message from the sender. An attacker can't alter a message because they don't have the private key needed to reconstruct the signature.

There is another pro to using ECDSA on iOS. We can make use of the fact that currently, elliptic curve keys are the only ones that can be stored in the secure enclave of the device. All other keys are stored in the keychain which encrypts its items to the default storage area of the device. On devices that have one, the secure enclave sits separate from the processor, and key storage is implemented in hardware without direct software access. The secure enclave can store a private key and operate on it to produce output that is sent to your app without ever exposing the actual private key by loading it into memory!

I will add support for creating the ECDSA private key on the secure enclave by adding the kSecAttrTokenIDSecureEnclave option for the kSecAttrTokenID parameter. We can start this example with a User object that will generate a keypair upon initialization.

Next, we will create some helper and example functions. As an example, the class will allow a user to initiate a conversation and send a message. Of course, in your app, you would configure this to include your specific networking setup.

Next, we will do the actual signing and verification. ECDSA, unlike RSA, does not need to be hashed prior to signing. However, if you wanted to have a function where the algorithm can be easily swapped without making many changes, then it's perfectly fine to continue to hash the data before signing.

This verifies the message, as well as the “identify” of a specific user since only that user has possession of their private key. 

This doesn't mean that we're connecting the key with who the user is in real life—the problem of matching a public key to a specific user is another domain. While the solutions are out of the scope of this tutorial, popular secure chat apps such as Signal and Telegram allow users to verify a fingerprint or number via a secondary communication channel. Similarly, Pidgin offers a question and answer scheme whereby you ask a question that only the user should know. These solutions open a whole world of debate on what the best approach should be.

However, our cryptographic solution does verify that the message can only have been sent by someone who is in possession of a specific private key.

Let's run a simple test of our example:

OAuth and SSO

Often when working with third-party services, you will notice other high-level terms used for authentication, such as OAuth and SSO. While this tutorial is about creating a signature, I will briefly explain what the other terms mean.

OAuth is a protocol for authentication and authorization. It acts as an intermediary to use someone's account for third-party services and aims to solve the problem of selectively authorizing access to your data. If you log in to service X via Facebook, a screen asks you, for example, if service X is allowed to access your Facebook photos. It accomplishes this by providing a token without revealing the user's password.

Single sign-on, or SSO, describes the flow where an authenticated user can use their same login credentials to access multiple services. An example of this is how your Gmail account works to log in to YouTube. If you had several different services at your company, you may not want to create separate user accounts for all of the different services.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you saw how to create signatures using the most popular standards. Now that we have covered all the main concepts, let's recap!

  • Use HMAC when you need speed and are sure that the secret key can be exchanged securely.
  • If the keys have to travel across a network, it's better to use RSA or ECDSA.
  • RSA is still the most popular standard. Its verification step is quite fast. Use RSA if the rest of your team is already familiar with or using the standard.
  • If you need to constantly generate keys on a slow device, however, use ECDSA. While the ECDSA verification is a tad slower than RSA verification, that doesn't compare to the many seconds saved over RSA for key generation.

So that's it for digital signatures in Swift. If you have any questions, feel free to drop me a line in the comments section, and in the meantime check out some of our other tutorials on data security and app development in Swift!

  • iOS SDK
    Securing iOS Data at Rest: Protecting the User's Data
    Collin Stuart
  • iOS SDK
    Securing iOS Data at Rest: The Keychain
    Collin Stuart
  • Swift
    What's New in Swift 4
    Patrick Balestra
  • iOS SDK
    Faster Logins With Password AutoFill in iOS 11
    Patrick Balestra

13:09

Quick Tip: How to Use Atom as a Git GUI

When you use Git as part of your workflow it can be very useful to have easy access to a GUI to help speed up your processes. There are a great many Git GUIs to choose from, but if you use Atom as your code editor you won’t have to go far to find some solid options. 

Thanks the excellent ecosystem of extension packages created by the Atom community, as well as some in-built tools, there is a range of fantastic ways to get a Git GUI up and running right inside your editor. In this quick tip we’ll look at three of these methods.

Note: If you don't have Atom and you'd like to get it, go to: https://atom.io/ 

1. git-control

The git-control package is my personal favorite as it makes working with Git a breeze. If, like me, you’re a bit more of a casual Git user and don’t have all the commands you need 100% memorized, this is the package for you.

The interface for git-control is contained in its own tab, so you can have it fill up the entire workspace or you can split it off to the side, as you’ll see I have in the image above.

You get a full range of easy access buttons to trigger common tasks like commit, pull, push and so on. It automatically detects new files, changed files and deleted files and shows them to you under Workspace in the sidebar on the left. Switching branches is as easy as clicking the desired branch in the same sidebar.

When you perform actions you’ll get a complete readout of everything happening in the log section running along the bottom of the git-control UI, so if something doesn’t work as expected it’s easy to see the error messages that have been returned.

To install this package go to Packages > Settings View > Install Packages/Themes, search for git-control and hit the corresponding Install button when you find it. To open it up once installed go to Packages > git-control > Toggle.

2. Native git Integration

If you’d rather not install any packages at all, another option for you is Atom’s own native Git integration, something you might naturally expect to find in a code editor made by GitHub. To open up the Git management panel move your mouse over to the far right edge of Atom and you’ll see a little semi circle with an arrow on it appear. Click it and you’ll see the interface pictured in the image above, which opens out as a sidebar on the right.

Through this interface you’ll see staged and unstaged changes, and you’ll be able to make commits with associated messages. There are two tabs in the interface, with the left being the one show in the image above, and the right being for GitHub specific integration. I’ve been using Gitlab of late so I can’t tell you too much about the GitHub section, but if you are a GitHub user I’m sure this native integration will be very handy.

3. git-plus

The git-plus package is the GUI for you if already know exactly what you want to do, you just want a convenient, inline way to do it. To install this package search for git-plus via Packages > Settings View > Install Packages/Themes. 

Once installed, to use it go to Packages > Git Plus. Here you’ll see a list populated with quick shortcuts for all the commands you might typically run through a terminal.

So as you can gather, this package isn’t necessarily designed to help you find your way around if you’re new to Git, rather it’s to save you time and prevent you needing to switch applications when running commands you already know well.

Wrapping Up

Those are three ways to get yourself rolling with a GUI for using Git, right inside Atom editor. In my experience this makes working with Git a more pleasant, smooth and efficient experience. I hope you find one of the options here does the same thing for you!

Related Links:

13:00

12 Useful WordPress Plugins for Page Layouts

When it comes to plugins for laying out the pages on your WordPress site, Visual Composer is a hard one to beat. This easy-to-use drag-and-drop page builder with over 200 unique addons will help the developer and the novice alike create just about any layout imaginable.  

But for users looking to modify just one page in a specific way, this powerful page builder is probably overkill. That’s why we’ve scoured CodeCanyon for the most useful WordPress page layout plugins and have come up with these 12 that will meet a variety of needs.

1. Essential Grid WordPress Plugin

Whether you’re looking for just the right grid to display your blog posts, photos, products, testimonials, social media streams, services or whatever else you have in mind, The Essential Grid WordPress Plugin has got you covered.

This multipurpose grid enables you to display any content on your WordPress site in your choice of elegant grid form. First you decide what source you want to use for your grid entry. Then you customise the grid by choosing from three available styles before selecting your required number of columns and rows and setting spacing for the items. From there you can add any number of skins available to customise your look further.

Essential Grid WordPress Plugin

Notable features:

  • over 25 example skins included
  • widely varied content sources possible, including images, YouTube, HTML5 self-hosted video, etc.
  • various animation styles available
  • responsive and mobile optimised
  • and more

Essential Grid WordPress Plugin is an engaging and visually appealing way to show off content on your WordPress page.

2. FlatFolio

FlatFolio is another great option for those looking for an alternative grid layout. Aside from being highly customisable, the plugin has the additional benefit of offering both Carousel and Slider functions as well. You can customise the grid with logos, captions, coloured overlays, titles and subtitles, hover shadows, and more.

FlatFolio

Notable features:

  • preview feature
  • carousel and slider features
  • unlimited item formats
  • various overlay effects
  • and more

For creatives and other users wanting to show off their visual content, FlatFolio is a versatile and easy-to-use layout choice. 

3. Sidebar and Widget Manager

If you’ve ever wished for the freedom to place a widget in the content area of your WordPress site page, the Sidebar and Widget Manager has heard your prayers. The plugin allows you complete control of where you add widgets to your site’s pages by expanding placement possibility beyond the sidebar and footer area to the page content area.

Sidebar and Widget Manager

Notable features:

  • drag-and-drop grid manager
  • vertical or horizontal widget alignment
  • ability to display or hide any widget on any page
  • supports any kind of content
  • and more

Being able to add widgets to any area of your WordPress site page with the Sidebar & Widget Manager plugin is a great way to build your own unique page layout.

4. Content Manager for WordPress

The Content Manager for WordPress plugin is probably the most versatile of the plugins in this list because it allows you to create any kind of layout you desire in three simple steps. Simply add a new page, create your desired layout with the drag-and-drop interface, and then add your content. 

Content Manager for WordPress

Notable features:

  • ability to add unlimited fully editable pages
  • 10 layout colours
  • 30 Google Font options
  • multiple language support
  • and more

User rjhuntington says of Content Manager for WordPress: “Love it! Solves so many irksome WP shortcomings.”

5. Stupid Simple Testimonials

The Stupid Simple Testimonials plugin makes it super easy to add testimonials or quotes to your page layout. Using a simple shortcode that can be inserted in pages, posts and widgets, the plugin features eight unique ways to customise your page layout.

Stupid Simple Testimonials

Notable features:

  • grid layout automatically adjusts to match the total number of testimonials
  • six unique colour schemes provided to match your theme
  • ability to divide your testimonials into categories for easy management
  • ability to edit using the standard WordPress editor
  • and more

The Stupid Simple Testimonials plugin is a straightforward way to alter your page layout and will integrate your testimonials or quotes into your site in a crisp, professional fashion.

6. WordPress Meet the Team Shortcode Plugin

Just as the Stupid Simple Testimonials plugin above is dedicated to adding testimonials to your page layout, the WordPress Meet the Team Shortcode Plugin is dedicated to adding your team members to your page layout in an elegant and professional way. 

The plugin allows you to not only show members of your team but also arrange them by categories or groups as needed. What’s more, the plugin allows you to add and manage individual member information like job titles, locations, social media, etc.

WordPress Meet the Team Shortcode Plugin

Notable features:

  • responsive grid or carousel view
  • unlimited custom fields
  • drag-and-drop ordering
  • supports up to 12 columns
  • highly customizable
  • and more

WordPress Meet the Team Shortcode Plugin is a good choice if introducing your team and their specialities to potential visitors to your site is a priority.

7. JC WooCommerce Multistep Checkout

The JC WooCommerce Multistep Checkout plugin is designed to improve your customer’s checkout experience by replacing WooCommerce’s default checkout layout. The aim of the plugin is to display each step of the checkout process clearly, so that at any given time users know exactly where they are and how far along they are in the process.

JC WooCommerce Multistep Checkout

Notable features:

  • easily control which steps are displayed
  • ability to add custom steps like user authentication
  • customisable text, style and layout features
  • and more

JC WooCommerce Multistep Checkout is a good choice for refining your WooCommerce checkout process.

8. UberMenu

What’s a great site without an equally great menu layout to help your visitors navigate your content seamlessly? UberMenu plugin is designed to facilitate just such easy navigation. The highly customisable and responsive plugin offers seven main menus and several submenu options to suit a wide variety of tastes and needs.

UberMenu

Notable features:

  • easy to add images, descriptions, Google maps, etc.
  • choice of 18 layout variables
  • fully responsive and compatible with mobile and touch-enabled devices
  • extensive user-friendly documentation
  • and more

UberMenu works out of the box with the WordPress Menu System, making it simple to get started and create gorgeous menus quickly and easily.

9. WordPress Events Calendar

If you’re looking for a clean and elegant way to keep your customers, clients and/or followers updated on your public appearances then adding the WordPress Events Calendar plugin to your WordPress page layout might be the right solution for you. 

WordPress Events Calendar

Notable features:

  • ability to add multiple calendars to a page or post
  • upcoming events widget
  • multiple languages support
  • and more

User Applicist praises WordPress Events Calendar for its “excellent functionality and UI”.

10. WordPress Content Boxes Plugin

With the WordPress Content Boxes Plugin, it’s all about boxes. 43 stylishly designed boxes to be precise, any of which users can select to contain and showcase site content, like testimonials, social icons, team members, products, pricing lists, etc.

WordPress Content Boxes Plugin

Notable features:

  • over 1,000 icons
  • highly customisable
  • ability to use multiple content boxes in one page
  • and more

Though one of the newer additions to CodeCanyon, WordPress Content Boxes Plugin with Layout Builder is sure to be a big favourite in the coming months. 

11. Flip Magazine

Flip Magazine is a beautifully conceived magazine layout which enables users to simulate page turning by pressing forward or backward arrows. It will appeal to creatives who want to show off their image gallery in full-width magazine-page format, but will also work equally well for those who want to display their WordPress posts stylishly.

With Flip Magazine, you can build unlimited pages with each page carrying its own settings.

Flip Magazine

Notable features:

  • user-friendly touch optimised design with gestures support
  • all Google Fonts supported
  • unlimited flip magazine pages
  • CSS3 animations for navigation menu
  • and more

Flip Magazine is possible the coolest of the 12 plugins featured here, but don’t take my word for it. Check it out for yourself.

12. Smart Footer System

I don’t know about you, but I’m pretty tired of the same old same old when it comes to footers, so I got pretty excited when I found the Smart Footer System, which made me look at footers in a whole new way.  

Smart Footer allows users to customise their footers in any number of ways, including adding photos and videos and various animations. With over 70 different styles to choose from, this highly customisable plugin will breathe new life into the bottom of your WordPress site pages.

Smart Footer System

Notable features:

  • several animation modes and speeds
  • innovative and powerful admin panel 
  • video background possible
  • highly customisable
  • and more

With the Smart Footer System plugin, you no longer have any excuse for having dull, snooze-inducing footers on your site.

Conclusion

These 12 plugins just scratch the surface of page layout plugins available at Envato Market. So if none of them catch your fancy, there are plenty of other great options there to hold your interest.

And if you want to improve your skills building WordPress sites, check out the ever so useful free WordPress tutorials we have on offer.

12:00

Create Interactive Charts Using Plotly.js, Part 2: Line Charts

In the Getting Started With Plotly.js tutorial of this series, you were presented with a quick start guide that briefly covered all the features, bundles and chart types available in the library. If you have not already read that tutorial, I would suggest that you go over it at least once to get a broad idea of the Plotly.js library.

In this tutorial, you will learn how to create line charts in Plotly. I have also written another series in the past about a lightweight library called Chart.js that can be used to create canvas-based charts in JavaScript. In one tutorial that is titled Getting Started With Chart.js: Line and Bar Charts, I covered the process of creating line charts using Chart.js. People who have read that tutorial will probably remember that you have to set the type attribute to line to create a line chart in Chart.js.

With Plotly.js, you cannot set the type attribute to line to create a line chart. You will have to set the type attribute to scatter and then set the mode attribute to "lines", "lines+markers", or "lines+markers+text". Keeping this in mind, let's get started with the tutorial and create some awesome line charts.

Creating a Basic Line Chart

In this section, we will plot two different scatter traces in the form of line charts using Plotly. The code is very similar to the one we used in the last tutorial to create a line chart using a single trace. Here is the actual code:

Styling the Chart Lines Using Different Attributes

At this point, everything in our chart has been created using the default options. The rest of the sections in the tutorial will show you how to use all the attributes available for the scatter type trace to create custom line charts. The options to change the appearance of a plotted line are all available under the line key.

The color of a line can be specified using the color key. You can also control the width of a line by using the width attribute. The width is specified in pixels, and its default value is 2. 

The shape of the line between different points that are being plotted can be specified using the shape attribute. The shape is linear by default, but you can also set it to spline, vh, hv, hvh, or vhv. When shape is set to linear, there are no bends in the line that connects two consecutive points. In the case of vh, hv, hvh, and vhv, the lines are never drawn at an angle. They are either horizontal or vertical, with a 90-degree bend that can occur at the first point, second point, mid point, or both the points, depending on the specified shape value. 

The last option is to set the shape to spline. In this case, the line actually becomes a curve, with no sharp bends. The smoothness of this curve can be set with the help of another attribute called smoothing. This attribute can accept any value between 0 and 1.3 inclusive. Setting it to zero will result in straight lines like the linear value. Here is some code that uses all these attributes to plot five different lines on a chart:

The following line chart shows the difference between different values of the shape attribute. I have used the name parameter to assign different names to each line so that you can clearly see the shape created by each value.

One more parameter that you can use while drawing the plot lines is the dash parameter. You can set this parameter to a string value to set a dash style for your lines. Valid values for this attribute are: solid, dot, dash, longdash, dashdot, and longdashdot

Another option is to provide the dash length yourself using a list of pixel values like "4px, 4px, 10px". The following demo uses different values of the dash property to create unique line styles.

Setting Fill Colors and Markers

The area under a plotted line in a graph remains transparent by default, but you can fill it with a color of your choice if you wish to. This can be achieved by using the fill parameter. It is set to none by default, but other valid values include tozeroy, tozerox, tonexty, tonextx, toself, and tonext

The value tozeroy will fill all the area starting from the line trace to y=0. Similarly, the value tozerox will fill all the area starting from the line trace to x=0. The tonexty and tonextx values fill all the area between endpoints of the current trace and the trace before it. When no other traces are left, these values will act like tozeroy and tozerox respectively. You can use these two values to create stacked graphs. 

As the name suggests, the value toitself connects the endpoints of the trace to each other, forming a closed shape. The last value, tonext, fills all the available space between two traces only when one trace is completely enclosing the other one.

By default, the area specified by the value of the fill parameter is filled using a semi-transparent variant of the line color, marker color, or marker line color, depending on availability. However, you can specify your own color to fill that area using the fillcolor parameter.

The dots that represent the plotted points on the graph are marked using circles by default. Plotly.js also provides a lot of other marker symbols for you to choose from. There are about 44 different marker symbols, and almost all of them are available in four different versions. You can find a list of all these symbols in the documentation. The markers also have opacity, size, and color parameters that let you control the opacity, size, and color of these symbols. The default value of opacity is 1, and the default value of size is 6.

Here is a little code that uses all the parameters from this section to create line charts with filled areas and non-circular markers:

When filling the area between different traces with a given color, you need to keep in mind that all these parameters fill the trace area based on the order in which the traces are supplied to the plot() function, and not the order in which the traces were declared. 

In our case, traceE is the first trace, and there is no trace before it. This means that the value tonexty effectively becomes tozeroy this time. We have passed traceD after traceE, so all the points between these two traces will be filled with the color of traceD. If we had instead passed traceA first, then the fill area would have extended all the way from the top to y=0. That might not be a desirable outcome in some cases. So you should always keep the order in which the traces are passed in mind.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned how to create line charts using Plotly.js. Different sections of the tutorial discussed a variety of customization options, like setting the shape, color, and width of the lines. 

You also learned about different marker symbols and the fill option provided by Plotly.js that can be used to further customize a line chart. I have only covered some of the major attributes here, but there are a few others, like showlegend and hoverinfo, that you should probably know about. You can read about all these attributes under the scatter reference section on the Plotly website.

In the next tutorial of the series, you will learn how to create bar charts in Plotly. If you have any questions or tips related to this tutorial, feel free to share them in the comments.

10:07

não merecia tantos versos

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Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Smart Hyperlink"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Hashtag"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Unresolved Mention"/> </w:LatentStyles></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]><style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:8.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:107%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style><![endif]-->
 Christine Ellger
 
esgota-se no esforço estoico
de alcançar o ponto onde perdeu as letras
do nomear viagem.

o dia está aí. parado, porém
desfasado de quanto em seu peito se agita.
o dia, [a perder tempo
pelas ruas do desconcerto]
bate nos olhos,
não como candeia
no centro da lembrança,
mas como guia do olvido
em lugares do porvir,
inútil cartografia.

não merecia tantos versos
esta calva ideia de finitude. 





06:14

September 18 2017

15:00

Use Machine Learning to Recognize Images With IBM Watson

Wouldn't it be great if an Android app could see and understand its surroundings? Can you imagine how much better its user interface could be if it could look at its users and instantly know their ages, genders, and emotions? Well, such an app might seem futuristic, but it's totally doable today.

With the IBM Watson Visual Recognition service, creating mobile apps that can accurately detect and analyze objects in images is easier than ever. In this tutorial, I'll show you how to use it to create a smart Android app that can guess a person's age and gender and identify prominent objects in a photograph.

Prerequisites

To be able to follow this tutorial, you must have:

1. Activating the Visual Recognition Service

Like all Watson services, the Visual Recognition service too must be manually activated before it can be used in an app. So log in to the IBM Bluemix console and navigate to Services > Watson. In the page that opens, press the Create Watson service button.

Watson home screen

From the list of available services shown next, choose Visual Recognition.

Watson services catalog

You can now give a meaningful name to the service and press the Create button.

Visual Recognition service configuration

Once the service is ready, an API key will be generated for it. You can view it by opening the Service credentials tab and pressing the View Credentials button.

Credentials as a JSON document

2. Project Setup

In this tutorial, we'll be using the Watson Java and Android SDKs while interacting with the Visual Recognition service. We'll also be using the Picasso library in order to fetch and display images from the Internet. Therefore, add the following implementation dependencies to your app module's build.gradle file:

To be able to interact with Watson's servers, your app will need the INTERNET permission, so request for it in your project's AndroidManifest.xml file.

Additionally, the app we'll be creating today will need access to the device's camera and external storage media, so you must also request for the CAMERA and WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE permissions.

Lastly, add your Visual Recognition service's API key to the strings.xml file.

3. Initializing a Visual Recognition Client

The Watson Java SDK exposes all the features the Visual Recognition service offers through the VisualRecognition class. Therefore, you must now initialize an instance of it using its constructor, which expects both a version date and the API key as its arguments.

While using the Visual Recognition service, you'll usually want to take pictures with the device's camera. The Watson Android SDK has a CameraHelper class to help you do so. Although you don't have to, I suggest you also initialize an instance of it inside your activity's onCreate() method.

At this point, you have everything you need to start analyzing images with the service.

4. Detecting Objects

The Visual Recognition service can detect a large variety of physical objects. As input, it expects a reasonably well-lit picture whose resolution is at least 224 x 224 pixels. For now, let's use the device camera to take such a picture.

Step 1: Define a Layout

The user must be able to press a button to take the picture, so your activity's layout XML file must have a Button widget. It must also have a TextView widget to list the objects detected.

Optionally, you can throw in an ImageView widget to display the picture.

In the above code we've added an on-click event handler to the Button widget. You can generate a stub for this widget in code it by clicking on the light bulb shown beside it.

Step 2: Take a Picture

You can take a picture by simply calling the CameraHelper object's dispatchTakePictureIntent() method, so add the following code inside the event handler:

The above method uses the device's default camera app to take the picture. That means to gain access to the picture taken, you must override your activity's onActivityResult() method and look for results whose request code is REQUEST_IMAGE_CAPTURE. Here's how you can do that:

Once you find the right result, you can extract the picture from it in the form of a Bitmap object using the getBitmap() method of the CameraHelper class. You can also get the absolute path of the picture using the getFile() method. We'll need both the bitmap and the absolute path, so add the following code next:

If you chose to add the ImageView widget to your layout, you can display the picture now by directly passing the bitmap to its setImageBitmap() method.

Step 3: Classify the Picture

To detect items in the picture, you must pass the image as an input to the classify() method of the VisualRecognition object. Before you do so, however, you must wrap it in a ClassifyImagesOptions object, which can be created using the ClassifyImagesOptions.Builder class.

The return value of the classify() method is a ServiceCall object, which supports both synchronous and asynchronous network requests. For now, let's call its execute() method to make a synchronous request. Of course, because network operations are not allowed on the UI thread, you must remember to do so from a new thread.

The classify() method is built to handle multiple pictures at once. Consequently, its response is a list of classification details. Because we are currently working with a single picture, we just need the first item of the list. Here's how you can get it:

The Visual Recognition service treats each item it has detected as a separate class of type VisualClassifier.VisualClass. By calling the getClasses() method, you can get a list of all the classes.

Each class has, among other details, a name and a confidence score associated with it. The following code shows you how to loop through the list of classes and display the names of only those whose scores are greater than 70% in the TextView widget.

Note that the above code uses the runOnUiThread() method because the contents of the TextView widget can be updated only from the UI thread.

If you run the app now and take a picture, you will be able to see Watson's image classification working.

Image classification result

5. Analyzing Faces

The Visual Recognition service has a dedicated method to process human faces. It can determine the age and gender of a person in any photograph. If the person's famous, it can also name him or her.

Step 1: Define a Layout

Analyzing faces with the Visual Recognition service is not too different from classifying objects. So you are free to reuse the layout you created earlier. However, to introduce you to a few more features the service offers, I'm going to create a new layout, this one with a slightly different functionality.

This time, instead of taking pictures using the camera and passing them to the service, let's directly pass an image URL to it. To allow the user to type in a URL and start the analysis, our layout will need an EditText widget and a Button widget. It will also need a TextView widget to display the results of the analysis.

I suggest you also add an ImageView widget to the layout so that the user can see the image the URL points to.

Step 2: Display the Image

Inside the on-click handler of the Button widget, you can call the getText() method of the EditText widget to determine the image URL the user typed in. Once you know the URL, you can simply pass it to Picasso's load() and into() methods to download and display the image in the ImageView widget.

Step 3: Run Face Analysis

To run face analysis on the URL, you must use the detectFaces() method of the VisualRecognition client. Just like the classify() method, this method too needs a VisualRecognitionOptions object as its input. 

Because you already know how to use the execute() method to make synchronous requests, let's now call the enqueue() method instead, which runs asynchronously and needs a callback. The following code shows you how:

As you can see in the above code, inside the onResponse() method of the callback object, you have access to a DetectedFaces object, which contains a list of face analysis results. Because we used a single image as our input, we'll be needing only the first item of the list. By calling its getFaces() method, you get a list of all the Face objects detected.

Each Face object has a gender and age range associated with it, which can be accessed by calling the getGender() and getAge() methods.

The getGender() method actually returns a Gender object. You must call its own getGender() method to get the gender as a string, which will either be "MALE" or "FEMALE". Similarly, the getAge() method returns an Age object. By calling its getMin() and getMax() methods, you can determine the approximate age of the face in years.

The following code shows you how to loop through the list of Face objects, generate a string containing the genders and ages of all the faces, and display it in the TextView widget:

Here's a sample face analysis result:

Face analysis result

Conclusion

The Watson Visual Recognition service makes it extremely easy for you to create apps that are smart and aware of their surroundings. In this tutorial, you learned how to use it with the Watson Java and Android SDKs to detect and analyze generic objects and faces.

To learn more about the service, you can refer to the official documentation.

And be sure to check out some of our other posts about machine learning here on Envato Tuts+!

  • Android Things
    Android Things and Machine Learning
    Paul Trebilcox-Ruiz
  • Android Things
    Android Things: Creating a Cloud-Connected Doorman
    Paul Trebilcox-Ruiz
  • Android SDK
    How to Use Google Cloud Machine Learning Services for Android
    Ashraff Hathibelagal
  • Android SDK
    Create an Intelligent App With Google Cloud Speech and Natural Language APIs
    Ashraff Hathibelagal
  • Android SDK
    How to Use the Google Cloud Vision API in Android Apps
    Ashraff Hathibelagal
12:00

Create Interactive Charts Using Plotly.js, Part 1: Getting Started

In the series titled Getting Started With Chart.js, you learned how to use Chart.js to easily create responsive canvas-based charts. The series covered seven basic chart types offered by the library. However, you may be required to create more complex charts with additional functionality to make those charts interactive. 

One of the best free-to-use libraries to create a variety of responsive, interactive and functionality-rich charts is Plotly.js. In this series, you will learn how to create different kinds of charts using Plotly.js, including line charts, bar charts, bubble charts, and dot plot charts.

Why Use Plotly.js?

Plotly.js offers a lot of features that make learning about the library worth the effort. It is a high-level declarative library built on top of d3.js and stack.gl. Here is a list of features that make Plotly one of the best JavaScript charting libraries:

  • You can create interactive charts with ease using Plotly.js. Any chart that you create with the library is equipped with features like zooming in, zooming out, panning, auto-scaling, etc. These features are very useful when you want to study charts with a large number of plotted points. All these events are exposed in the API, so you can write custom code to perform your own actions when any of these events are triggered.
  • High performance when plotting a lot of points makes Plotly.js a great choice whenever you have to chart a large amount of data. Since most charts are created using SVG, you get a decent amount of compatibility across browsers and the ability to export high-quality images of any chart. However, drawing a large number of SVG elements in the DOM can adversely affect the performance. The library uses stack.gl to create high-performance 2D and 3D charts. 
  • Any 3D charts that you create are rendered with the help of WebGL to take full advantage of all the power that the GPU has to offer.
  • All the Plotly.js charts are fully customizable. Everything from the colors and labels to grid lines and legends can be customized using a set of JSON attributes. You will learn how to customize different chart types in the next three parts of the series.

Installing Plotly

Before we start using Plotly.js, we need to install it first. There are a lot of different ways to install the library.

You can directly clone the library using the following command and then use the files located in the dist folder.

Another option is to perform the installation using npm by running the following command:

You can also use the Plotly.js CDN and directly link to the library. Generally, you would like to use a compiled and minified file with the latest version of the library. However, you can also link to a specific version of the library in the CDN. Here is an example:

At the time of writing this tutorial, the latest version of the library is 1.28.3. The file size after minifying and compressing the library is 666 kB. The non-minified and uncompressed version has a size of 5.4 MB. As you can see, the long list of features that this library offers come at a price.

Starting from version 1.15, you can choose from different partial bundles, each of which allows you to create specific chart types. There are seven different bundles: basic, cartesian, geo, gl3d, gl2d, mapbox, and finance. You can get the CDN link for these bundles using the following line:

If you only need to draw charts from a single bundle, you can use this method to significantly reduce the file size. Here is some additional information about each of them.

  • basic: This bundle contains the scatter, bar and pie trace modules. The compressed and minified version of this bundle has a size of 215.7 kB.
  • cartesian: This bundle contains the scatter, bar, box, heatmap, histogram, histogram2d, histogram2dcontour, pie, contour and scatterternary trace modules. The compressed and minified version of this bundle has a size of 238.2 kB. 
  • geo: This bundle allows you to create different types of map-related charts in JavaScript. The compressed and minified version of this bundle has a size of 224.1 kB.
  • gl3d: This bundle allows you to create different types of 3D maps using the scatter, scatter3d, surface and mesh3d trace modules. The compressed and minified version of this bundle has a size of 354 kB.
  • gl2d: This bundle contains the scatter, scattergl, pointcloud, heatmapgl, contourgl and parcoords trace modules. It has a size of 362.9 kB after minification and compression.
  • mapbox: This bundle contains the scatter and scattermapbox trace modules. The file size in this case is 328.6 kB. 
  • finance: The finance bundle can be used to create time series, candlestick and other chart types to plot financial data. This module consists of scatter, bar, histogram, pie, ohlc and candlestick trace modules.

Using Plotly to Create a Chart

Once you have decided the charts that you want to create and loaded the appropriate bundle in your webpage, you can start creating your own charts using Plotly.js. The first thing that you need to do is create an empty div element where the graph should be drawn.

Have some data ready that you want to plot on the chart. In this example, I am just using some random numbers to create the chart. Finally, you have to call the plot() function and provide it with all the information like the container div, the data, and the layout options. Here is the code to create a very basic line chart:

All charts in Plotly.js are created declaratively using JSON objects. Every property of the chart, like its color and data, has a corresponding JSON attribute that can be used to fully customize the appearance and behavior of the chart.

The attributes can be broadly divided into two categories. The first one is called traces, which are objects that are used to provide information about a single series of the data to be plotted on the graph. The second category is layout, which provides different attributes that control all the other aspects of the chart like its title or annotations. Different traces are further categorized by the chart type, and the attributes that are available to you to draw the chart will depend on the value of the type attribute.

In the above example, we have created a traceA object that stores the trace type and the data that you want to plot on the chart. The following CodePen demo shows the final result of the above code.

As you can see in the demo, you can zoom in, zoom out, or auto-scale the graph. You can also download the chart as an image. The chart itself looks very professional with its sharp lines.

Layout Attributes to Customize the Charts

In the rest of the tutorials in this series, we will focus on learning about different attributes related to specific chart types like line and bar charts. Before doing that, you should also have some basic knowledge of different layout attributes that control aspects common to all chart types like the font, the title, the x-axis, the y-axis, etc.

You can specify a global font which should be used while creating traces and other layout components like the axes and the title. The options are specified using the font object, and these values are used by default by all the components of the chart. The color, size and family keys are nested inside the font key. You can use them to set the global font color, global font size, and global font-family respectively.

Each chart has a title attribute which can be used to set the title for the current chart. It gives the user some information about what you are plotting on the chart. The font properties for the title can be specified using the titlefont attribute. Just like the global font attribute, the color, size and family keys nested inside the titlefont attribute can be used to control the font-related properties of the title.

You can specify the width and height of a chart in pixels using the width and height keys. You can also control the spacing around the chart as well as the plotting area using different attributes nested under the margin key. All the values are specified in pixels. 

The left margin is specified using the l attribute, the right margin using the r attribute, the top margin using the t attribute, and the bottom margin using the b attribute. The plotting area and the axis lines are very close to each other by default. You can add some space around the plotting area using the pad attribute nested inside the margin key. The padding is specified in pixels, and its default value is zero.

You can choose your own colors for the background of the whole chart as well as the plotting area to match the theme of your website. Both these colors are set to white by default, but you can specify a different value for each of them using the paper_bgcolor and plot_bgcolor keys respectively.

You can also specify the title and different font properties for all the axes in your chart. The font properties are nested inside the axis keys for the respective axes. You also have the ability to independently control the base color for the axis and the color of the font used for its title. 

Sometimes, the points being plotted on a chart don't go all the way down to zero. In such cases, the ticks created by Plotly on an axis also don't extend to zero. However, if you want the ticks to always start from zero, regardless of the range of points being plotted, you can use the rangemode attribute and set its value to tozero.

The following code snippet uses some of the attributes we just discussed to modify the appearance of the chart we created in the previous section.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned about different features of the Plotly.js library. I also covered the installation and usage of the library along with different layout attributes to customize the appearance of the charts according to your needs. 

JavaScript has become one of the de facto languages of working on the web. It’s not without its learning curves, and there are plenty of frameworks and libraries to keep you busy, as well. If you’re looking for additional resources to study or to use in your work, check out what we have available in the Envato marketplace.

In the rest of the series, you will learn about different types of basic charts that can be created using Plotly. I hope you enjoyed the tutorial, and if you have any questions or suggestions, feel free to share them in the comments.

09:30

New Course: Swift Design Patterns

If you're looking for a comprehensive guide to design patterns, our new course is ideal for you. In Swift Design Patterns, you'll get 24 detailed videos totalling 3.5 hours of viewing time, in which you'll learn some common design patterns that you can use over and over in many different languages.

Screenshot from the Swift Design Patterns course

What You’ll Learn

In this course, Envato Tuts+ instructor Derek Jensen will teach you some of the most common design patterns, and he will explain and demonstrate exactly how these patterns can be applied using the Swift programming language. You'll learn the following patterns:

Creational Patterns

  • factory
  • abstract factory
  • singleton
  • prototype
  • builder

Structural Patterns

  • adapter
  • flyweight
  • proxy
  • bridge
  • decorator
  • composite
  • facade

Behavioral Patterns

  • iterator
  • command
  • chain of responsibility
  • mediator
  • memento
  • interpreter
  • observer
  • strategy
  • state

For each pattern, you'll see a complete example in code, and you'll get an explanation of the specific challenge the pattern is solving. By the end, you'll have some powerful new coding tools in your toolkit.

Watch the Introduction

 

Take the Course

You can take our new course straight away with a subscription to Envato Elements. For a single low monthly fee, you get access not only to this course, but also to our growing library of over 1,000 video courses and industry-leading eBooks on Envato Tuts+. 

Plus you now get unlimited downloads from the huge Envato Elements library of 300,000+ photos and 34,000+ design assets and templates. Create with unique fonts, photos, graphics and templates, and deliver better projects faster.

September 17 2017

18:23

fim de tarde

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Daniel Gerhartz



as horas entornam-se vagarosamente para o outono
e é na minha pele, na minha alma, que as horas
se entornam vagarosamente para o outono.
a nostalgia das folhas que, em súbita agonia,
se desprendem do verão é a minha nostalgia,
a desolação das vinhas apartadas dos cachos,
as árvores órfãs de frutos e ninhos,
os aromas doces de tão maduros,
intensos de tão nossos, são o meu sentimento
mais puro.

quero escrever e não posso.
esgalharam a magnólia vertiginosamente
indiferentes ao seu desespero ainda verde.
a luz sobre o tampo da mesa onde escrevo, cresceu
mas é uma luz alambre, sem asas nem cantos.
que páginas sobreviverão ao declínio
dos pássaros e seus concertos matinais?
do restolhar dos ramos em permanentes conversas?
da cera levemente nacarada  das flores?

todas as horas são de fim de tarde
agora que os relógios enlouquecem
na ondulação assimétrica de luz e sombra.
é esta a minha estação, continuamente:
a mesma fluidez do ar, líquido
a mesma água indulgente a correr pelos veios da voz
o mesmo sol escasso a embalar brios e desordens
o mesmo silêncio arreigado de nuvem

sempre à beira de chover.








06:54

September 16 2017

12:51
08:12
Time to Party at 3DRetro with Juan Muniz x Luke Chueh Headspace and Prisoner Percocet Drops (9.16)
06:47
05:09
Jim Dreams x Unbox BTS Chunk (9.16)
04:06
Amanda Visell x Michelle Valigura The Man of Steel
01:56

September 15 2017

12:00

Build a To-Do API With Node, Express, and MongoDB

API stands for Application Programming Interface. APIs allow the creation of an application to access features of an application or service. Building APIs with Node is very easy. Yes, you heard me right!

In this tutorial, you will be building a To-Do API. After you are done here, you can go ahead to build a front end that consumes the API, or you could even make a mobile application. Whichever you prefer, it is completely fine.

Application Setup

To follow this tutorial, you must have Node and NPM installed on your machine.

Mac users can make use of the command below to install Node.

Windows users can hop over to the Node.js download page to download the Node installer.

Ubuntu users can use the commands below:

To show that you have Node installed open your terminal and run node -v. You should get a prompt telling you the version of Node you have installed.

You do not have not install NPM; it comes with Node. To prove that, run npm -v from your terminal and you will see the version you have installed.

Now go and create a directory where you will be working from, and navigate into it.

Initialize npm in the current working directory by running:

The -y flag tells npm to initialize using the default options.

That will create a package.json file for you. It is time to start downloading all the packages you will make use of. NPM makes this hassle free. You need them as dependencies.

To download these packages, run:

The --save flag tells npm to install the packages as dependencies for your application.

When you open your package.json file, you will see what I have below:

Before you start coding, you have to install MongoDB on your machine if you have not done that already. Here is a standard guide to help you in that area. Do not forget to return here when you are done.

Create the Todo Model

Create a folder called server, and inside it create another folder called models. This is where your Todo model will exist. This model will show how your Todo collection should be structured.

  1. You need to require the mongoose package you installed using NPM.
  2. You create a new model by calling the model function of mongoose. The function receives two parameters: the name of the model as a string, and an object which contains the fields of the model. This is saved in a variable called Todo.
  3. You create a text field for your to-do. The type here is String, and the minimum length is set at 1. You make it required so that no to-do record can be created without it. The trim option ensures that there are no white spaces when records are saved.
  4. You create a field to save true of false value for each to-do you create. The default value is false.
  5. Another field is created to save when the to-do is completed, and the default value is null.
  6. You export the Todo module so it can be required in another file.

Set Up Mongoose

Inside your server folder, create another folder called db and a file called mongoose.js.

This file will be used to interact with your MongoDB, using Mongoose. Make it look like this.

  1. You require the mongoose package you installed.
  2. Plugs in an ES6-style promise library.
  3. You call the connect method on mongoose, passing in the link to your MongoDB database. (You will set that up soon.)
  4. You export mongoose as a module.

Set Up the Configuration

Time to set up a few configurations for your API. The configuration you will set up here will be for your development and test environment (you will see how to test your API).

  1. You create a variable and store it in the Node environment or the string development.
  2. The if block checks if env equals development. When it does, the port is set to 3000, and the MongoDB URI is set to a particular database collection.
  3. If the first condition evaluates to false and this is true, the port is set to 3000, and a different MongoDB database collection is used.

Create End Points

  1. Requires the configuration file created earlier.
  2. Requires lodash installed with NPM.
  3. Requires express installed with NPM.
  4. Requires bodyParser package.
  5. Requires ObjectId from MongoDB.
  6. Requires the mongoose module you created.
  7. Requires your Todo model.
  8. Sets app to the express module imported.
  9. Sets port to the port of the environment where the application will run or port 3000.
  10. Sets up middleware to make use of bodyparser.

In the next part, you created the post request, passing in the path and a callback function which has request and response as its parameters. 

In the block of code, you set todo to the text that is passed in the body of the request, and then call the save function on the todo. When the todo is saved, you send the HTTP response—this time, the todo. Otherwise, the status code 400 is sent, indicating an error occurred.

You have created HTTP methods covering all parts of your API. Now your API is ready to be tested. You can do test it using Postman. If you do not have Postman installed on your machine already, go ahead and get it from the Postman website.

Start up your node server using node server.js

Open up postman and send an HTTP POST request. The specified URL should be http://locahost:3000/todos.

For the body, you can use this:

And you should get a response. Go ahead and play around with it.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned how to build an API using Node. You made use of a lot of resources to make the API a powerful one. You implemented the necessary HTTP methods that are needed for CRUD operation.

JavaScript has become one of the de facto languages of working on the web. It’s not without its learning curves, and there are plenty of frameworks and libraries to keep you busy, as well. If you’re looking for additional resources to study or to use in your work, check out what we have available in the Envato marketplace.

As you continue to build in Node, you will get to understand its power and the reason why it is used worldwide.

07:45
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